November 1915

On the 4th November Sir William Birdwood was appointed to command the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, with Sir Charles Monro appointed to command the Salonika Force.

 

Great Britain, on the 10th November, formed a Requisition Committee authorising the requisition of ships for carriage of foodstuffs. The Committee prohibited voyages between foreign ports except under license.

 

Italian Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna launches the Forth Battle of Isonzo on the 10th November, which was effectively a continuation of the Third Battle.

 

On the 21st November, the Serbian Vojvoda [Chief of Staff] Marshall Radomir Putnik ordered a full military retreat south and west through allied Montenegro and into neutral Albania. His forces were outnumbered and out outgunned. The weather was terrible, the roads poor and tens of thousands refugee civilians retreated along with the army. The retreating Serbs were left with very little supplies and food. The British nurse, Flora Sandes, recently enlisted into the Serbian army, retreated alongside the military forces.

 

The 22nd November saw the beginning of the Battle of Ctesiphon between British and British Indian forces against the Otterman Empire. Part of the Mesopotamian campaign, Ctesiphon lies on the western bank of the Tigris River approximately 26km (16 miles) south-east of Baghdad. The Otterman forces formed well-camouflaged and formidable defences with 18,000 troops facing 11,000 of the British forces. The British frontal attack was to consist of three infantry columns, and a forth column of cavalry and infantry was to swing round the left flank of the Otterman lines. After two days the British retreated, after suffering heavy losses.

 

On the 30th November, the triple entente of Great Britain, France and Russia, with Italy, signed the formal signature of the Pact of London. According to the pact, Italy was to leave the German and Austria/Hungarian triple alliance and join the triple entente. Assuming victory against Germany and her allies, the triple entente promised Italy territorial gains.

 

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