Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 31 Aug 1914

Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 31 Aug 1914

My darling one,

I have had some rest at last & feel more lively – I was almost overcome one day with fatigue & loss of sleep. I had only 40 min on the floor in 48 hours, & started off without any breakfast or sleep on a long days work – result, I couldn’t ride because I fell forward in the saddle. I couldn’t walk except like a drunken man, so I got on hanging on to a stirrup leather – Times have been hard and sorrowful, I have not seen or heard any authentic news of the Regt: and am in great anxiety – The Weather is dreadfully hot & oppressing – we manage to find fairly comfy quarters, one night in a beautiful Chateau, all furnished and we had an excellent dinner, commandeering some champagne & old Brandy to revive us.

I have not seen any casualty list, fear many friends have gone, and it must take time before lists are full & complete. A good many are turning up – Darling one I fear this is a dreadful anxiety for you all at home, I honestly hope the worst is over, but with such a huge front for Armies to work over it will probably take time.

Our letters have not been very good – only about 2 posts so far, somehow we never seem to settle down into working the post.

Have seen Weir, Charlton, Kay, & many other S.C. officers – I wish I could see the Regt & find out all about them.

Send me some more cigarettes & a small box of Harrod’s No 1 club cigar when you can I am out I find & don’t care for a pipe in this heat – I slept out last night & found it quite warm. Straw makes an excellent bed – I have found this paper in a case handed to me today so am making use of it.

My precious one, don’t be anxious I am very fit & as happy as can be. I still picture you in the little cottage – where you will be surrounded with sympathetic friends – I am writing to Mother now as we are waiting for orders

All my love to you both
Your devoted
Jimmie

For Betty XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

With envelope addressed to Mrs Dick Cunyngham, Mount View, Crownhill S.O., S. Devon. England. Endorsed No stamps available. Signed Dick Cunyngham. Postmarked ARMY POST OFFICE 42 AU 31 14. Also London Paid 8 SP 14

Letter ref P C Lister 24 August 1914

Headed notepaper of
On Admiralty, War Office, and Crown Agents’ Lists.
The Parsons Motor Co., Ltd.,
Engineers
Town Quay Works, SOUTHAMPTON.

August 24th 1914
L/H
The Recruiting Officer
Royal Engineers.

Sir,
We have to-day filled in a portion of Army Form. . B. 195 handed to us by one of our employees now a candidate for enlistment in the Royal Engineers, namely Percival Charles Lister who was in our employment up till Saturday last the 22nd instant, and whom we regard as an exceptionally good Turner and Machinist on small accurate work, on ordinary Engine Lathes, Universal Grinders, Shaping & Slotting Machines.
He is accustomed to working to fine limits, and can use the Micrometer and Limit Gauges.
He has our best wishes for a successful career.
Yours faithfully
THE PARSONS MOTOR CO., LTD.
.

Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 11 Aug 1914

Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 11 Aug 1914

On headed notepaper
Anchor Line
Twin screw steamer S.S. Caledonia.

My darling one,

We are all aboard – after all the advance party went away earlier at 3.30 & here we are – a good big ship – food & all luxuries aboard – au revoir my darling
Your own
Hubby.

With black edged envelope addressed to Mrs Dick Cunyngham, Mount View, Crownhill S.O., S. Devon. Postmarked Southampton 11 p.m. Aug 14 14.

Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 6 Aug 1914

Dick-Cunyngham letter to wife dated 6 Aug 1914

On headed notepaper of
The Dolphin Hotel.
Southampton

My own Precious one,

Have just arrived 11 p.m. and am staying here – whole Town one was of officers & men.

I shall never forget your dear sweet bravery today, you gave me strength to bear up, and God I know will send his blessing on you both.

I hope my darling little Betty was a comfort to you this crossing – it was a sad journey here – but I had companions all the way – a nice young Devon Subaltern who thinks he will get to Jersey tonight to join his Regt.

I shall get my orders in the morning & shall I expect be very busy – things look in an awful muddle. Met ‘a Senior’ here tonight, he forgot my name. I can’t remember his at present! Bald headed gunner – shall meet many other pals I expect in the morning.

All my love & God keep you safe. I will write again tomorrow

Your own
Jimmie

With black edged envelope addressed to Mrs Dick Cunyngham, Mount View, Crownhill S.O., S. Devon. Postmarked Southampton 12.15 p.m. 6 AU 14.

THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLDWIDE CONFLICT

One of the reasons for the outbreak of war in 1914 was the petty jealousies for the colonies of the British Empire throughout the world. Protection was required when Germany, along with other European nations, acquired their own colonies globally.

 

The war of 1914 was largely fought out in Europe. However, the conflict encompassed the whole world. The British Empire countries of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India were committed to the declaration of war against Germany. Their citizens willingly volunteered to join the fight.

 

Japan had entered the war as Great Britain’s loyal ally. America eventually entered the war on the side of the allies, effectively completing the nations involved in the Great War.

 

AFRICAN THEATRE OF THE GREAT WAR

 

The continent of Africa had been colonised over the years by the British Empire, France, Germany, Belgium, Holland and Portugal.

 

The African Theatre was part of the Great War. Should war break out in Europe, the European colonies in Africa would remain neutral, under the Berlin Conference 1884. An editorial by the “East African Standard” on the 22nd August 1914 argued that Europeans in Africa should not fight each other. Instead, they should collaborate to dominate over the native African population. The British army attacked German held coaling and radio stations in S.W Africa, together with wireless stations elsewhere in Africa. By having control of the radio stations Britain would help clear the seas of German commerce raiders. In S.W, Africa German fusiliers defeated British troops, who retreated to British Territory. The South African army, having put down a rebellion by the Boers, conquered German South-west Africa. British and French forces invaded the German colony of Togoland in West Africa on the 7th August 1914 and Germany finally surrendered on the 26th August 1914. British forces attacked German troops at the Battle of Tere near Garva on the 25th August, eventually resulting in a German withdrawal. Fighting in Africa continues into 1918.

 

THE BATTLE OF CORONEL

 

Naval warfare was to form a part of the war. Admiral Graf Maximillian von Spee of the German East Asiatic squadron was operating in the Pacific Oceon. Spee had devised a plan to prey upon all shipping in the crucial trading routes off the west coast of South America. In early October 1914, the British had intercepted a radio communication giving details of the plan. The British West Indies Squadron, under the command of Admiral Cradock, patrolling South America, was ordered to deal with the problem.

 

Admiral Spee’s naval force consisted of five modern efficient armoured and light cruisers, whereas Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock had four not so modern cruisers. Hoping for reinforcements from Britain, Cradock waited in the Falkland Islands. When the reinforcements failed to appear, Cradock proceeded to meet up with the light cruiser “Glasgow” at Coronel. “Glasgow” had been despatched there to gather intelligence reports. Spee, with all his war ships, set out to destroy “Glasgow” after having heard she was patrolling alone. In the meantime, Cradock had ordered his squadron to adopt an attacking formation.

 

One message, sent by Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty, ordered Cradock to halt any confrontation, pending any possible reinforcements from the Japanese navy. Whether Cradock received this message, no one actually knows.

 

Cradock had received an intercepted   radio signal, on the 31st October 1914, to say the German light cruiser “Leipzig” was in Cradock’s area. Promptly he ordered his squadron to intercept, and on the 1st November 1914, he encountered Spee’s entire force. Instead of retreating against superior opposition, Cradock decided to engage the Germans. However, he did order his converted ex liner “Ortanto” to break away and retreat. Spee’s reaction to this confrontation with the British was to move his squadron out of Cradock’s firing range. Spee proceeded to shell Cradock’s force and crippling the flagship “Good Hope”. Both armoured cruisers “Monmouth“and “Good Hope” were destroyed. Cradock drowned when he his ship went down and there were not any survivors of the two warships. Spee’s own fleet had suffered little damage and sailed for the German naval base in Chile. Two British ships “Glasgow” and “Ortanto” escaped.

 

Once the news had been received, the British Admiralty despatched a huge naval force under the command of Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee. This fleet was designated to destroy Spee’s force when the two sides engaged at the Battle of the Falkland Islands.

 

 

THE BATTLE OF THE FALKLANDS ISLANDS

 

Speeding toward Port Stanley, in the Falkland Islands, Admiral Graf Maximillian von Spee was keen to raid the British radio station and coaling depot. Spee was keen to add the Falkland Islands to his credit after his East Adriatic Squadron success at defeating the British at the Battle of Coronel.

 

Britain’s First Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher, had ordered a squadron to the Falklands in order to reverse the defeat at Coronel.

 

Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee was the commander of the British Fleet. The fleet was moored up, and re-coaling in Port Stanley. Spee commenced his attack on the 8th December 1914 and missed the opportunity strike the British fleet whilst still at dock. Realising the danger to his squadron Spee made a dash for the open sea but the British soon pursued.  Spee brought about an engagement, in the early afternoon, knowing he could not out-run the more powerful British cruisers. The cruiser “Invincible”, commanded by Edward Bingham had damage inflicted by the German cruisers “Scharnhorst”and “Geneienau”, who resumed a hasty escape. Sturdee was able to bring his cruisers within extreme firing range. Four of the five German cruisers were sunk, “Scharnhorst”, “Geneienau”, “Nurmburg” and “Leipzig”. Only one German cruiser, “Dresden” escaped but by March 1915 it’s captain surrendered and scuttled her off the Juan Fernandez Islands.

 

The British lost 10 sailors killed and minimal damage to “Invincible”. However, 2200 German sailors lost their lives together with the loss of four warships.

 

The success, by Sturdee, was a morale booster and complete reversal for the set-back at Coronel. As a result, German commerce raiding ceased until the introduction of the submarine at a later stage of the war.

 

 

 

Resources:-

 

Taylor, A.J.P., The First World War, George Rainbird Limited, London.

Wikipedia, African Theatre of World War 1, the free encyclopaedia.

Wikipedia, The Battle of Coronel 1914.

Wikipedia, The battle of the Falkland Islands, 1914.

August 4th

NOTIFICATIONS OF A STATE OF WAR

His Majesty’s Government informed the German Government on August 4th, 1914, that, unless a satisfactory reply to the request of His Majesty’s Government for an assurance that Germany would respect the neutrality of Belgium was received by midnight of that day, His Majesty’s Government would feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold that neutrality and the observance of a treaty to which Germany was as much a party as Great Britain.

The result of this communication having been that His Majesty’s Ambassador at Berlin had to ask for his passports, His Majesty’s Government have accordingly formally notified the German Government that a state of war exists between the two countries as from 11 p.m. to-day.

Foreign Office

August 4th, 1914

Published in London Gazette of August 7th, 1914