The Bay Museum is a friendly museum situated on Canvey Island. Based in a degaussing station, it now offers a wealth of artefacts, books and displays focusing on both local and world military history. Open from 10am till 4pm, the museum also organises trips to France and Belgium to experience the battlefields first hand, as well as helping you research your own family military histories. The museum is run by volunteers who always warmly welcome visitors and are never short of a war story!
Coronavirus Museum Closure
It is with sadness that the Curators of The Bay Museum feel they must follow the Government’s advice which is now very specific and close the Museum until the coronavirus situation improves.
Notification of reopening will be given as soon as the Curators feel it will be safe for them and the public will be given on this web site. In the meanwhile should you wish to contact the Museum please telephone 07899 674630.
Air Raid Damage Reports Brentwood Division Essex Fire Service 5 October 1940.
Date Time Location Damage
05/10/1940 01.30 Crays Hill Barrage Balloon grounded at “Aveley” Crays Hill
Road. No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded on 6th Tee Thorndon Park
Golf Course (exploded night of 5th inst). No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 14.43 Downham Barrage Balloon grounded near “Frimnells”
Overhead Electric Cables down at Wick Lane. (Taken by RAF 6th inst) No casualties.
05/10/1940 19.45 Canvey 4 – H.Es exploded near “Next-Wych” and Winter
Island Gardens and a number of I.Bs at Northwick and near No 8 Gun Site of 167 Battery, 59th Heavy RA. No casualties or damage.
05/10/1940 20.45 Brentwood I.Bs (a number) in private drive of “Merrymead”
Sawyers Hall Lane. No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 21.10 Doddinghurst 1 – H.E. exploded in garden of Council
Houses Church Lane. No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 21.45 Basildon 1 – H.E. and 50 I.Bs in fields West and South of
junction Dunton & Rectory Roads to Calvers Farm. Up track of A.127 blocked at Basildon. No casualties.
05/10/1940 23.30 Little Warley 1 – H.E. exploded and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out in a field
1/4 mile West of Warley Lodge. North of Childerditch to Clapgate Farm Road. No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 23.40 Thundersley 2 – H.Es exploded in a field 200 yards Arterial
Road side of Oakwood Reservoir Daws Heath and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out in garden of “Oakwood” Bramble Lane. Roof and windows damaged at “Oakwood”, “Hazledene” and “Glagsons Farm”. No casualties.
05/10/1940 23.40 Hadleigh 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 400 yards West of
Balwood Garden Daws Heath. No damage or casualties.
05/10/1940 23.40 Hutton 6 – H.Es unexploded in a field 200 yards East of
Hanging Hill Lane. In fields behind Beers Cottage and 100 yards South of Sewells Cottages. No damage or casualties.
Air Raid Damage Reports Brentwood Division Essex Fire Service 1 October 1940.
Date Time Location Damage
01/10/1940 23.45 Canvey 21 – H.Es 14 exploded and 1 unexploded in fields
Island at Leeches Farm between Canvey Road and “Snaresbrook” Church Parade (house demolished) 5 exploded in the Winter Gardens District, 2 at “Kingsclare” Champion Avenue, 1 at “Elmsholme” Central Avenue, 1 in Cooks Field, 1 near “Oakleigh” Burwell Avenue and 1 unexploded 20 feet in front of “Currie” Burwell Avenue. (Unexploded dealt with by B.D.S 15.1.41) No casualties.
01/10/1940 Night Billericay 1 – H.E. unexploded 100 yards South of Sudburys
Farm House. No damage or casualties.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR October 1940
From the 2nd October 1940 night time bombing of London had taken over from day-light raids and continued throughout the month. During the course of the Blitz, many deep underground tube stations were designated as air raid shelters for civilian use. On the 14th October 1940, Balham underground station was hit by a 1400kg semi-armour piercing fragmentation bomb which fell on the road above. In the blackout a double decker bus crashed into the resulting crater, fortunately nobody on the bus was killed. The crater caused the northbound tunnel to collapse killing 65 people although over 400 managed to escape the disaster to safety.
Neville Chamberlain resigned from the House of Commons on the 9th October 1940. Following his resignation as Prime Minister in May 1940 in favour of Winston Churchill, he remained as the Leader of the Conservative Party. Churchill wished for Chamberlain to return to the Exchequer, he declined but accepted the post of Lord President of the Council with a seat in the five member War Cabinet. In September 1940 Chamberlain had offered his resignation to Churchill owing to ill health. Chamberlain’s surgeons discovered he had terminal cancer, although he was never told. At first Churchill was reluctant to accept the resignation but was forced to accept when it was obvious that Chamberlain would never work again. Chamberlain refused to accept the offered highest order of British chivalry, the Order of the Garter. Chamberlain resigned in October 1940 and died one month later, on the 9th November 1940 aged 71.
Southeast of Sicily the Royal Naval Mediterranean fleet was attacked by light vessels of the Italian Navy on the 9th October 1940. The British fleet had escorted a convoy to Malta and was returning to Alexandria when attacked. Cruiser HMS Ajax sank Italian ships ‘Airone’ and ‘Aerial’ and badly damaged destroyer ‘Artigliere’ which was finished off by cruiser HMS York. Aircraft from carriers HMS Illustrious and HMS Eagle launched air strikes against Leros Island in the Dodecanese. On the same return journey cruiser HMS Liverpool was badly damaged by a torpedo launched from Italian aircraft. However, in the Battle of the Atlantic during October 1940 the German U-boats were inflicting heavy convoy losses as they sank 39 allied vessels.
The city of Liverpool sustained the heaviest bombing outside of London. Liverpool and Birkenhead had the largest port and dock area on the west coast of England which was of significant importance to the British war effort therefore attracting Luftwaffe bombing raids. On the 21st October 1940 the city was raided for the 200th time since the beginning of the war.
On the nights of 20/21st October and 24/25th October 1940 British Wellington bombers attacked Hamburg which started 12 and 13 fires respectively with little loss of life. There were also air raids on Berlin during October 1940, all of which did little damage because British bombers were at their extreme range and navigational aids were not that reliable at the time.
The Battle of Britain officially ended on the 31st October 1940 when the Luftwaffe abandoned large scale daylight raids on London. The battle had begun in July 1940 when the Germans attacked coastal targets and British shipping in the English Channel in an effort to gain air superiority prior to an invasion of England. By mid-August 1940 the attacks moved inland, concentrating on RAF airfields and communication centres. On the 7th September 1940 the Luftwaffe shifted most of their attacks away from RAF targets and onto night-time assaults on London known as the Blitz. The Luftwaffe suffered unsustainable heavy losses on the 15th September 1940 when Fighter Command repelled another massive assault. At the end of the Battle of Britain the Luftwaffe was dealt an almost lethal blow which it never fully recovered when just 3,000 RAF pilots had broken the will of the Luftwaffe.
In German occupied Poland on the 3rd October 1940 all Jewish residents of Warsaw were directed to move into a designated ghetto in Warsaw. By the 31st October 1940 the ghetto had been sealed off from the rest of the city and the population was estimated to be over 400,000 Jewish people living in an average of 7.2 persons per room in an area of 1.3 square miles.
On the 4th October 1940 German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler and Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass, near the German-Italian border, to discuss the progress of the war. The main subject was the plans in the Mediterranean as the Germans had given up on Operation Sea Lion.
Germany deployed a military mission to Romania on the 7th October 1940 to provide training for the Romanian Army and the guarding of the Romanian oilfields. This mission was German’s response to Romanian’s request made on the 7th September 1940.
On the 12th October 1940 Hitler issued a directive releasing German invasion troops to other fronts. To keep political pressure on Britain the appearance of Operation Sea Lion had to be maintained. A fresh directive would be issued if it was decided that the invasion was to be reconsidered in the spring of 1941.
At Hendaye, near the Spanish-French border Hitler met with Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco on the 23rd October 1940. Hitler had hoped to convince Franco to enter the war on the Axis side but little was accomplished as Spain’s demands appeared extortionate to Hitler. However, a secret agreement was reached under which Franco committed Spain to enter the war at a date of Franco’s choosing.
After meeting with Franco, Hitler went to Montoire on the 24th October 1940. He met with Phillippe Pétain, signifying the start of organised Vichy French collaboration with the Nazi regime.
Following Italy’s entry into the war in June 1940, Mussolini decided to invade neutral Greece on the 15th October 1940 through the Italian held territory of Albania. He had long time ambitions to extend Italy’s empire to match the glory days of Antiquity. On the 28th October 1940 Mussolini issued an ultimatum to Greece demanding they give up Greek territory but the Greek government rejected the proposal. The Italian Army invaded Greece on the 28th October 1940 before the ultimatum had expired. The invasion was a disaster owing to the Italian Army encountering a horrendous mountainous terrain on the Albania-Greek border and met with tenacious resistance by the Greek Army. Mussolini had not been informed of German’s plans for the area and had acted on his own initiative but Hitler was angered at this initiative of his ally.
The Italian Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) attacked Bahrain on the 19th October 1940 but caused little damage. On the following day, the 20th October 1940, Cairo in Egypt was attacked as a diversion while four Italian SM82 bombers attacked and heavily damaged two American operated oil refineries in the British Protectorate of Bahrain. The only real success of the raids was it forced the British to divert resources to upgrade their defences in the Middle East.
On the night of the 24/25th October 1940, the Corpa Aereo Italiana (CAI) conducted its first raid on Britain when their aircraft attacked Harwich and Felixstowe. The CAI was an expeditionary force from the Italian Regia Aeronautica. At the insistence of Mussolini the Italian CAI would assist their German allies during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. Of the aircraft involved the Fiat CR42 biplane fighter was outclassed by the British Hurricane and Spitfire and the Fiat G50 monoplane fighters were restricted to 400 miles range. Eighteen Fiat BR20 bombers took part in the attack but one crashed on take-off. Not all the aircraft found their targets, however, ten crews reported they had successfully bombed their targets. Three of the aircraft were lost in accidents on the return journey. On the 29th October 1940 the next major operation of the CAI took place when fifteen BR20 bombers who were escorted with a strong fighter escort bombed Ramsgate. Five Italian aircraft suffered damage due to local anti-aircraft guns.
Following American President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s signing of the “Selective Training and Service Act 1940”, he appointed Clarence A. Dykstra as Director of Selective Services on the15th October 1940. The act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards. The draft registration began on the 16th October 1940 and the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimpson began to draw numbers out of a glass bowl on the 29th October 1940 in the first peacetime conscription in the U.S. history. The numbers were handed to Roosevelt who read them aloud during a public announcement. However, on the 30th October 1940, whilst speaking in Boston during the campaign for election of his third term of Presidency, Roosevelt made a pledge to his audience. He stated, “But I shall say it again, and again and again. Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign war”. A little over a year later the USA was at war with Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany.
The P-51 Mustang was an American long range, single seat fighter-bomber which first flew on the 26th October 1940. The Mustang was designed by Northern American Aviation (NAA) in 1940 in response to the requirements of the British Purchasing Commission. NAA was approached by the Purchasing Commission to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under licence for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design, NAA proposed the design and production of a modern fighter, and 102 days after the contract was signed the first prototype was ready on the 9th September 1940. The Mustang was designed to be powered by the Allison V-1710 engine, but it had limited high altitude performance. When the RAF took delivery and flew the Mustang they replaced the Allison with the Rolls Royce Merlin engine and the fighter’s performance was transformed at altitudes above 15,000 feet. By using the Merlin engine the Mustang had the height to compete with the Luftwaffe fighters without having to sacrifice the range before refuelling. The Mustang saw action in the European, Pacific, Mediterranean and Far Eastern theatres of the Second World War and also served in the Korean War.
In the Far East during October 1940, there were numerous clashes between Chinese Nationalists and Communists even though both sides continued the war against Japan. The two factions were fighting each other in North China for their own ultimate advantage. They were competing for control of enemy territory. The Chinese Civil War of 1927 had divided China into Nationalist and Communist factions. The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 7th July 1937 with both the Nationalists and Communists fighting against Japan.
Air Raid Damage Reports Brentwood Division Essex Fire Service September 1940.
Date Time Location Damage
01/09/1940 11.20 Thundersley Plate glass window 7ft x 6ft broken by concussion.
Gun fire in the distance. No casualties.
01/09/1940 11.21 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded (or shell) between Blaydale’s
Wood and Grave Wood on McClure’s Heron Hall Farm. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 23.6.41
02/09/1940 08.15 Rochford German Dornier 17 crashed and burnt out at
Rochford Aerodrome. Crew 1 killed, 3 prisoners safe.
02/09/1940 16.35 Vange Roof of Churchill & Johnsons Timber Yard Wharf
Road. Damaged by shrapnel
02/09/1940 16.40 Laindon German Messerschmitt 110 crashed and burnt out
in the South East Corner of Frith Wood. 2 bodies recovered.
02/09/1940 16.40 Brentwood Fire in a barley field near Sawyers Hall Farm
Doddinghurst Road. 3 cocks of barley destroyed. Cause unknown (during an air raid). No casualties.
02/09/1940 17.05 Little Body of a German Airman found at Sudburys
Burstead Cottage, Nirege Farm. Parachute failed to open.
02/09/1940 17.06 Vange 1 – A.A. unexploded shell in School gardens
Claylands. No damage or casualties.
02/09/1940 17.07 Potton Island 1 – H.E. unexploded 250 yards South of Sea Wall.
North end of Island. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 07.30 Canewdon British Spitfire smashed 1/2 mile North East of Air
Ministry Experimental Works. Pilot safe at Rochford Aerodrome.
03/09/1940 10.20 Canewdon British Pilot down by parachute at Sealdhurst
Farm. Face burnt. RAF on spot.
03/09/1940 10.20 Canewdon British Pilot baled out. Safe at Lower Raypits
Farm. Machine North of River Roach.
03/09/1940 10.20 Ingrave British Spitfire burnt out 300 yards East of
Handleys Dairy Farm. Pilot Sergt. Fopp of Debden safe.
03/09/1940 10.30 Church End 1 Cannon Shell unexploded at “Eltham Lodge”
Hawkwell Park Drive. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 10.30 Hullbridge 5 – I.Bs 1 at Mayfields Avenue and 4 at Malyons
Farm. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 10.40 Canewdon British plane crashed at Canewdon Hall Field.
03/09/1940 10.40 Mountnessing 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 150 yards South
West of Bacons Farm. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 10.45 Canewdon British plane burnt out 200 yards East of Apton
Hall. Pilot safe.
03/09/1940 10.50 Canewdon German Messerschmitt 110 wrecked at Snowhills
field. North of Canewdon Hall. Crew 1 injured (serious) 1 uninjured taken prisoner.
03/09/1940 10.50 Foulness British plane wrecked 1/4 mile East of Brickhouse
Island Farm. Pilot dead. Parachute failed to open.
03/09/1940 11.00 Hockley British plane burnt out at Beckney’s Farm. Pilot
03/09/1940 11.00 Sutton 2 – H.Es unexploded in a market garden field near
Temple Farm Cottage. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 11.00 Canewdon 2 – I.Bs at The Kennels. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 11.25 Mountnessing 1 I.B. unexploded found at Swallows Cross,
in field 300 yards West of Burnthouse Lane. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 12.12 Margaretting Pilot Officer David W Hunt wounded in Billericay
Hospital. Plane crashed in Chelmsford Division.
03/09/1940 12.13 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded at Childerditch Hall Farm, 400
yards West and 500 yards North of Arterial Road. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 13.5.41
03/09/1940 12.14 Shenfield 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded on greensward at
Alexander Lane. No damage or casualties. Taken by Military
03/09/1940 12.15 Rayleigh Grass fire at Cressays Farm Wickford Road.
Supposed cause cannon shell.
03/09/1940 12.16 Canewdon 1 – I.B. at Pudseys Hall gate, Larks Hill. No
damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 19.00 Canvey 1 – A.A. unexploded shell, 50 yards West of Eaton
Island Lodge. Central Wall Avenue. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 21.00 Mountnessing 3 – I.Bs unexploded at Mountnessing Hall,
400 yards West of the Farmhouse. No damage or casualties.
03/09/1940 21.00 Hutton 1 – H.E. unexploded at The Willows. Slight
damage to property. No casualties.
03/09/1940 21.00 Mountnessing 50 – I.Bs burnt out in fields and 1 I.B.
Unexploded 300 yards West of Peagrims Farm. No damage or casualties
03/09/1940 23.10 Laindon 1 – H.E. in the road B.1007 High Road Laindon
250 yards South of the Fortune-of-War P.H. Electric and telephone wires down and water main damaged. No casualties. (Single line traffic 21st inst.)
03/09/1940 23.10 Laindon 2 – H.Es exploded 100 yards East of High Road
Schools. Gas main, electric cable and surrounding property damaged. No casualties.
04/09/1940 01.10 Ramsden 9 – H.Es exploded and I.Bs (a number) burnt out in
Heath Jackson’s Meadow 1/2 mile North of the Village. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 09.30 Canewdon 5 – H.Es exploded in a field between Bolt Hall
House and the Sea Wall. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 09.30 Foulness 3 – H.Es exploded. One at Nazewick Farm. One
at Frenches Works & One at Little Newlands Farm. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
04/09/1940 09.30 Great 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 250 yards East of
Wakering Friends Farm. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 09.45 Barling 1 – H.E. exploded at Bolt Farm. One slight
casualty. No damage.
04/09/1940 09.45 Great 2 – H.Es exploded at Pinches Farm. No casualties
Stambridge or damage.
04/09/1940 09.46 Mountnessing 1 – H.E. unexploded at Arnolds Farm.
Arnolds Lane closed. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 09.47 Hutton 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 250 yards North from
end of Goodwood Avenue. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 30.4.41
04/09/1940 13.15 Rochford British Spitfire crashed and burnt out 150 yards
East of Rectory Road Railway Bridge. Pilot safe.
04/09/1940 13.16 Rochford 1 Cannon Shell unexploded at “Dunrovin” Oxford
Road. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 21.00 Mountnessing 1 – I.B. unexploded 300 yards West of
Peagrims Farm. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 22.20 Herongate 1 – H.E. unexploded 200 yards to the rear of
Salmons Farm. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 3.5.41
04/09/1940 22.30 Laindon 1 – A.A. Shell exploded on the Arterial Road 350
yards West of the Fortune-of-War P.H. Crossroads. Slight damage to Road. No casualties.
04/09/1940 22.30 Laindon 1 – A.A. Shell unexploded in a field 300 yards
North East of Frenches Farm and 300 yards East of Noak Hill Road. No damage or casualties.
04/09/1940 23.00 Vange 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell on the greensward in
Victoria Road. 100 yards West of Rickfield Road. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 11.52 Rochford 1 – H.E. unexploded 50 yards West of Stacks at
Samuels Field, Landwick. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 11.53 Rayleigh Shed burnt out at Dorothy’s Farm. Cause
05/09/1940 15.00 Rochford 2 – H.Es unexploded 400 yards North East of the
Rectory Hall Road. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 15.07 North British Spitfire burnt out at Bonvilles Farm. Pilot
Benfleet Robert Durham Number 42574 injured.
05/09/1940 15.07 Nevendon British Spitfire crashed and blew up 1/4 mile South
East of Nevendon Hall. Pilot Officer Webster killed. Parachute failed to open.
05/09/1940 15.20 Canvey Aeroplane crashed at speed in the centre of the
Island River Thames 1000 yards South East of Scars Elbow Fort
05/09/1940 15.20 Bowers German Messerschmitt 109 crashed and burnt out
Gifford at Little Chalvedons Hall 1/2 mile West of Ilfracombe Avenue, Pilot dead.
05/09/1940 15.20 South British Spitfire burnt out at Kimberly Road. Pilot
Benfleet Officer Lovell of Hornchurch safe. Electric cables damaged.
05/09/1940 15.20 Canvey H.Es number unknown exploded in the River
Island Thames 400yards South East of Scar Elbow Fort. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 15.20 Raweth Grass fire at Dollymans Farm. Cause not known
(during an air raid)
05/09/1940 15.27 Rayleigh 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded in High Street.
Taken away by Military. No damage or casualties
05/09/1940 15.30 Raweth British Pilot landed safe by parachute at the
Carpenters Arms P.H.
05/09/1940 15.30 Rayleigh A partly burnt German parachute found in a field at
rear of Fairview Club Arterial Road
05/09/1940 15.30 Laindon 1 – I.B. burnt out on the road opposite “St Cads”
Darnley Avenue. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 15.30 Runwell 2 – I.Bs near the Hospital. No damage or
05/09/1940 15.32 Hadleigh 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded in a garden of
“Homesliad” Lynton Road. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 15.45 Hawkwell A Polish Pilot Lapkonski from North Holt
Aerodrome landed by parachute in the Brickfields Rectory Road. Received a broken arm. Conveyed to Southend Municipal Hospital Rochford.
05/09/1940 16.00 Wallasea British Hurricane crashed near the Yacht Club.
Island Plane slightly damaged. Pilot Officer Robinson safe.
05/09/1940 17.00 Great Warley 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded in the garden of 63
Mount Crescent. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 17.05 Laindon British Hurricane crashed and badly smashed in a
field North of Markham Chase. Pilot Officer Robert Barton of North Weald safe.
05/09/1940 21.30 Raweth 2 – H.Es exploded 1 at Box Farm Water Lane.
Slight damage to Farm and 1 in Water Lane. Single Line Traffic 1/4 mile from the junction of Hullbridge Road. Telegraph pole broken. No casualties.
05/09/1940 22.20 Shenfield 6 – I.Bs 5 unexploded and 1 exploded and burnt
out in Hall Lane a mile North of the Chelmsford Road. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 Mountnessing 50 – I.Bx burnt out in fields at Swallows
Cross Farm. 2 Pig sties and a haystack fired. No casualties.
05/09/1940 22.30 Doddinghurst 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field behind
Batey’s bungalow. Harpers Lane Peartree Green. No damage or casualties.
05/09/1940 Billericay 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 350 yards South
East of Salmons Farm (exploded the 14.9.40) No damage or casualties.
06/09/1940 01.35 Great 16 – I.Bs burnt out at Barling Road. Barns, pig
Wakering sties and a stable damaged. No casualties.
06/09/1940 02.40 Canvey 3 – H.Es in Tilburg Road, Denham Road and
Island Urmond Road. Some bungalows completely wrecked. No casualties.
06/09/1940 02.40 Canvey 3 – H.Es exploded in a field at Little Gypps Farm
Island near Furtherwick Gun Site. 2 cows badly injured
06/09/1940 02.55 Little Warley 8 – H.Es 1 is unexploded near Whips Wood Off
Bird Lane. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 13.3.41
06/09/1940 02.56 Hutton 2 – I.Bs in the garden of “Holderhurst”, Park
Avenue and 1 in Hanging Hill Lane. No damage or casualties.
06/09/1940 04.08 Canvey 2 – H.Es at 40 Acres and Sea Wall. Sea Wall
Island damaged. No casualties
06/09/1940 10.00 Pitsea 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded. No damage or
06/09/1940 12.00 Raweth 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded in a field at
Chichester Hall, London Road. No damage or casualties.
06/09/1940 14.18 Wakering 3 – H.Es 1 is unexploded 1/4 mile East of Rushley
Farm Rushley Island. No damage or casualties.
06/09/1940 15.20 Basildon British Spitfire made a forced landing. Under
carriage damaged Pilot Officer MacKenzie safe ( engine trouble).
07/09/1940 01.00 South 1 – H.E. or A.A. unexploded Shell in the centre of
Benfleet Brook Road. Brook Road closed. Damage to the road. No casualties.
07/09/1940 Hutton 2 – H.Es unexploded in Brook Meadow behind
stack yard at Cresseys Farm. No damage or casualties.
07/09/1940 17.10 Laindon German Twin Engine Bomber crashed 300 yards
West of Noak Hill Road. Machine burnt out. 2 of crew baled out and are safe.
07/09/1940 17.15 Laindon German Bomber crashed at Calvers Farm Dunton
Road. Machine burnt out. 2 of crew killed 1 safe.
07/09/1940 17.15 Downham German Dornier crashed and burnt out between
De Beavoir Chase and Railway Bridge. 1 of crew dead and 1 safe.
07/09/1940 17.30 Barling I.Bs number unknown. At Robers Farm and
Sewerage Works. No damage or casualties.
07/09/1940 18.00 Rayleigh British Spitfire burnt out at Louis Drive Wickford
Road. Pilot safe
07/09/1940 18.00 Great British Spitfire made a forced landing in Kimberly
Wakering Field Star Lane. Under carriage damaged. Pilot safe.
07/09/1940 19.30 Pilgrims 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded at Wainsfords Crow
Hatch Green Lane. No damage or casualties
07/09/1940 20.30 Great Barrage Balloon grounded at Alexander Road. No
Wakering damage or casualties.
07/09/1940 23.15 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded between “Lyrette” & “Glencre”
bungalows Junction Road. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
08/09/1940 00.05 East 2 – H.Es exploded in a field 500 yards West of East
Horndon Horndon Crossroads and 150 yards North of the
Arterial Road. No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 00.40 South Weald I.Bs a number in fields between Spital Lane and
Vicarage Lane. In the vicinity of The Tower Arms P.H. No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 00.40 Brentwood I.Bs a number near St Faiths Poultry Farm. No
damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 00.43 South I.Bs a number, 200 yards North of the junction of
Weald Hillside Walk and Weald Road. No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 00.45 Pitsea 3 – H.Es exploded on Marsh Land. No damage or
08/09/1940 00.45 Crays Hill I.Bs a number at Crays Hall. No damage or
08/09/1940 00.50 Crays Hill 3 – H.Es unexploded in Friends Field Church Lane.
No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 01.15 Billericay 2 – H.Es 1 is unexploded at Randall’s Nurseries,
Cox Farm Road, 2 casualties (slight). Gas main and road damaged. Cox Farm Road closed ( road open 9.9.40)
08/09/1940 01.15 Bowers I.Bs about 100 on South Staines Farm. No
Gifford damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 01.25 South 3 – H.Es 2 exploded in a wood between Benfleet
Benfleet Road and Kiln Road 300 to 500 yards North East of Water Lane. Also 1 unexploded in middle of the road at the top of Vicarage Hill ( road closed). Electric cable damaged. No casualties.
08/09/1940 02.05 Billericay I.Bs about 600 between Billericay and Crays Hill in
six fields. Two stacks of clover fired at Gurnards Farm, South Green. 400 yards North of Billericay to Wickford Road. No casualties.
08/09/1940 02.37 Coxtie Green 1 – I.B. at Ensworth Randalls field. Stack fired. No
08/09/1940 03.30 Canvey 2 – H.Es 1 is unexploded in the centre of Canvey
Island Road between Northwick Corner and Canvey Bridge. Road closed. Telephone wires down. No casualties.
08/09/1940 06.30 Canvey Barrage Balloon grounded at Waterside Farm.
Island Secured to a telegraph pole.
08/09/1940 Canvey 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell at rear of garage at
Island Russets House, Canvey Road. No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 South 2 – H.Es unexploded in a field by the side of Essex
Benfleet Way. Road B.1014 closed. H.Es 3 feet from the road and 300yards from the Water Tower. No casualties.
08/09/1940 11.00 Doddinghurst 1 – Canon Shell unexploded. No damage or
08/09/1940 12.09 Coxtie Green 1 – I.B. and 7 Cannon Shells unexploded in fields
near Canterbury Tye. No damage or casualties
08/09/1940 Great Warley 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell near New Cottage by
side of road at Hole Farm. No damage or casualties.
08/09/1940 16.15 Great Warley Body of a German Airman found on Goodchilds
Farm. Captain Kuet Mescheder, 20 years. Parachute failed to open.
08/09/1940 21.18 Great 20 – I.Bs between Crays Hill and Barleylands
Burstead Farm. No damage or casualties.
09/09/1940 00.05 Laindon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell fell in “Springfield”,
Basildon Rise. No damage or casualties.
09/09/1940 02.15 Doddinghurst 1 – H.E. exploded near Wacketts Farm. 2
cottages demolished. Chickens and animals buried.
09/09/1940 15.00 Pitsea 3 – H.Es 1 exploded and 2 unexploded found at Blue
House Farm Pitsea Marshes. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 00.45 East 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 20 yards East of Tilbury
Horndon Road and 400 yards South of the Arterial Road. Telephone wires down. 1 cow killed.
10/09/1940 03.25 Basildon 2 – H.Es exploded, 1 in pond South of the Arterial
Road at Brook Mount Estate between Arterial Road and Basildon Road and 1 exploded on the North side of the Arterial Road at junction of Ladysmith Avenue. Slight damage to cycle track and gas main. No casualties.
10/09/1940 03.30 Billericay 1 – H.E. exploded 20 yards from “Grassland”, The
Risings. Part of house blown down. Overhead electric cable damaged. No casualties.
10/09/1940 05.00 Vange 1 – H.E. exploded in a field at the rear of “Thames
View” Bell Hill Road. Slight damage to house. No casualties.
10/09/1940 09.30 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded 1/2 mile South of Railway line at
Blue House Farm Pitsea Marshes. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 Hadleigh 1 A.A. unexploded Shell in the front garden of
“Pinecot” Benfleet Road. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 10.00 Foulness Body of a German Airman found on the foreshore
Island of Potton Island. Parachute attached. Been in water a few days. No Identity Card. Moved to Southend Municipal Hospital Rochford. Name Horst Klaff.
10/09/1940 16.30 Little Warley 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field opposite Rectory
Chase 300 yards East of the road. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 22.50 Hutton 2 – H.Es exploded in a field 1/4 mile West of
Hutton Rectory. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 23.00 Downham 2 – H.Es exploded, 1 at The Elms, Brook Hill and 1
150 yards West of Brook Hill. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
10/09/1940 23.10 Great Warley 50 – I.Bs in the vicinity of Headley Common. North
Lodge Warley Place set on fire. No casualties.
10/09/1940 23.30 Great Warley 1 – H.E. exploded and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out on a
footpath between Holt Farm and Cranham Road. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 23.40 Mountnessing 10 – H.Es, 1 is unexploded in Hare Spring
Wood and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out at Lawness Farm. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 23.45 Mountnessing 1 – H.E. exploded in stack yard at
Mountnessing Hall Farm. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
10/09/1940 Great 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell near a haystack
Burstead at Granite Chase. No damage or casualties.
10/09/1940 North 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 300 yards East of
Benfleet Fentons Hall. No damage or casualties.
11/09/1940 00.10 Brentwood I.Bs ( a number) Baptist Chapel, extensive
damage. Shenfield Common, no damage. 120 & 125 High Street, slight damage and 2 unexploded I.Bx Running Water Corner. No damage. Police property, slight damage. London Co-operative Stores, Brandons, Woolworths and Ursuline Convent, serious and extensive damage. Gas Company’s Sports Ground. No damage. Also in fields at Coxtie Green.
11/09/1940 00.10 Coxtie Green 10 – H.Es 2 exploded in fields adjoining Coxtie
Green Road Navestock end. 7 unexploded in the vicinity opposite Oakhurst Farm, 1 unexploded 100 yards from the entrance of Giffords Poultry Farm, slight damage to property. No casualties. Road closed from the White Horse to Wheelers Corner (road open 14.9.40) 5 of the unexploded H.Es exploded B.D.S. 16.10.41.
11/09/1940 00.30 Canvey 6 – H.Es exploded at Hole Haven Creek.
Island No damage or casualties
11/09/1940 01.15 Herongate 4 – H.Es exploded and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out in fields
at Fouchers Farm near Reservoir. No damage or casualties.
11/09/1940 01.30 Dunton 20 – I.Bs burnt out in fields North and South of the
Arterial Road near the Union Jack Café. No damage or casualties.
11/09/1940 02.00 Great Warley 2 – H.Es exploded in a field 1/4 mile West of the
junction Warley Lane and Codham Hall Lane. No damage or casualties.
11/09/1940 16.15 Great British Spitfire crashed and burnt out 200 yards
Burstead South of Will Farm Church Street. Pilot baled out safe at Pipps Hill Basildon.
11/09/1940 16.20 Shenfield British Spitfire crashed. Machine badly damaged
in field 1/2 mile South West of Palmers Farm. Pilot safe.
12/09/1940 03.15 Dunton 12 – I.Bs burnt out in fields adjoining Lower Avenue
and Marylands Chase. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 03.15 Nevendon 2 – H.Es unexploded 200 and 250 yards North of
the Arterial Road opposite the Police houses. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 Ramsden 1 – H.E. unexploded near De Beavois Chase. No
damage or casualties. B.D.S. 6.3.41
12/09/1940 03.15 North 1 – H.E. unexploded at Brickfields Farm Burnt Mills
Benfleet Road 150 yards from road. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 Ramsden 1 – H.E. or A.A. unexploded Shell in back garden
of “Rose Lodge”. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 6.3.41
12/09/1940 03.48 Rochford I.Bs (a number) in a field at the bottom of Oak
Road 200 yards from Railway. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 Rochford 1 – H.E. unexploded 400 yards West of Mucking
Hall Wood. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 04.45 Brentwood 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in the back garden of
Hills Cottage, Warley Mount. No damage or casualties.
12/09/1940 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded in a clover field at Thorndon
Park. No damage or casualties.
13/09/1940 11.30 Laindon I.Bs (about 100) at Laindon, Langden Hills and Lee
Chapel. 11 houses slightly damaged and 2 seriously. No casualties
13/09/1940 12.45 East I.Bs (about 50) in a field at the junction of Tilbury
Horndon Road and East Horndon round-a-bout. No damage or casualties.
13/09/1940 12.45 East 5 – H.Es exploded to the rear of a bungalow called
Horndon “Joslyn” Cadogan Avenue. No damage or casualties.
13/09/1940 Basildon 1 – H.E. or A.A. unexploded Shell at Canes Farm.
10 yards from bungalow. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 6.3.41
13/09/1940 23.25 Hadleigh 1 – H.E. exploded on path at the Post Office at the
junction of Broughton & London Roads. Overhead telephone wires down. Damage to property. Footpath blocked. No casualties.
14/09/1940 03.10 Canewdon I.Bs (about 40) on Marshes between Norpits and
RaypitsFarm. No damage or casualties.
14/09/1940 03.30 Bowers 1 – H.E. exploded in back garden of 34 Highlands
Gifford Road Pound Lane. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
14/09/1940 05.20 Canvey 5 – H.Es 1 unexploded in Canvey Island Bus Coy
Island Garage. Leigh Beck, Point Road. Road B 1014 closed and 1 in High Beck School grounds. 1 exploded in the mud and 2 on the sea wall near the Casino. Slight damage to property. No casualties. Safe B.D.S. 4.11.40 road & school open.
14/09/1940 06.00 Vange Barrage Balloon grounded near Vange School.
Telephone and electric cables damaged.
14/09/1940 Lee Chapel 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field off Green Lane. No
damage or casualties,
14/09/1940 Basildon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 200 yards South East of
junction Gardeners Lane and Basildon Road at Irverns Farm. No damage or casualties.
14/09/1940 Vange 1 – A.A unexploded Shell in garden of “Eden
Lodge” Timberlog Lane. No damage or casualties.
14/09/1940 16.15 Rochford British Spitfire crashed and burnt out in a field
adjoining Rochford Aerodrome 100 yards West of Ann Boleyn P.H. Pilot killed.
14/09/1940 22.00 Hadleigh 2 – H.Es unexploded at the end of Rushbottom
Lane. No damage or casualties.
14/09/1940 22.00 Wickford 1 – H.E. exploded on a bungalow in Rectory Road.
Extensive damage. 1 slight casualty.
14/09/1940 22.05 North 6 – H.Es 1 unexploded opposite junction of Old
Benfleet Harrows Road and Arterial Road, 1 unexploded and 1 I.B. burnt out at Bonvilles Farm. No damage or casualties. Dealt with by B.D.S. 6.3.41
14/09/1940 23.00 Rochford 1 – H.E. exploded in the garden of a house in
Shopland. Slight damage to property (Motor cycle blown onto shed roof). No casualties.
14/09/1940 23.50 Hawkwell 2 – H.Es, 1 unexploded 100 yards West of Church
in a field (exploded at 08.20 the 15.9.40), 1 exploded 250 yards West of the Church. 1 slight casualty. Church spire broken off. Damage to a cottage and overhead electric cables.
14/09/1940 23.59 Little Warley 3 – H.Es exploded in a field 1/4 mile East of Hall
Lane and 500 yards South of Arterial Road. 1 cottage slightly damaged. No casualties.
15/09/1940 14.30 Vange 7 – H.Es unexploded, 1 side of road Claremont
Road, 50 yards South of Clay Hill, 1 in front of “Tolange” Collingwood Road, 1 in garden of “Oaklands” Bull Road, 1 in back garden of “William Cottage” Pitseaville Grove, 1 in orchard at Ravenscourt Drive, 50 yards South of Bull Road, 1 in road outside “St Ives” Rushleigh Drive and 1 in a field off Milemay Road. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 14.10.40
15/09/1940 14.30 Pitsea 5 – H.Es unexploded, 1 in back garden of
“Kamarhate” Stanley Road, 1 in garden of “Kathleen Villa” Pitsea Road, 1 in garden of “Strathlene” The Avenue (safe 1.10.40) 1 in garden of “Herongate” Northlands Drive. No casualties. (Area declared safe by B.D.S. 26.9.40 Bull Road, Church Road and Clay Hill open) No damage.
15/09/1940 Fambridge 1 – H.E. exploded on the sea wall 1/2 mile to the
rear of Fambridge Hall. No casualties or damage.
15/09/1940 14.30 Pitsea British Hurricane crashed and burnt out at Majolica
Drive. Polish Pilot 302 Squadron from Duxford safe.
15/09/1940 14.36 Langdon German Dornier Bomber crashed and burnt
Hills out at Gladstone Road. Crew 3 dead, 1 baled out and captured at Cory Works Thames Haven.
15/09/1940 14.45 Raweth Flight Lieut. Chopik. No 76691 A Polish
Pilot from Leckonfield killed at Forty Acres. Removed to Southend Municipal Hospital Rochford. No trace of aircraft in this Division.
15/09/1940 14.45 Billericay British Hurricane crashed and burnt out in Smith’s
meadow, 300 yards West of “Archers Hall”. Pilot Officer Hessee bailed out safe.
15/09/1940 14.50 Foulness German Bomber crashed on the mud at Asplins
Island Head. Plane 500 yards from sea wall. Crew 3 injured and 2 uninjured (prisoners),
15/09/1940 14.50 Pitsea 1 – H.E. unexploded on L.M.S. Railway
embankment, 100 yards East of Timberlog Lane Bridge. No damage or casualties.
15/09/1940 15.30 Herongate British Hurricane made a forced landing at the rear
of “The Willows Farm”. Machine and Pilot safe. Short of petrol. Took off at 19-40.
15/09/1940 16.50 Basildon 1 – H.E. unexploded in the garden of “Alicia” Clay
Hill. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 5.4.41.
15/09/1940 20.25 Basildon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field opposite
Basildon Hall near “Beresford”. No damage or casualties. (safe 16.12.40).
16/09/1940 02.40 South Weald 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field adjoining Spital Lane
1/4 mile from A 12. No damage or casualties. Lane open disposed of B.D.S. 30.3.41.
16/09/1940 Herongate 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 14 yards from Billericay
Road opposite Mount Thrift Farm. No damage or casualties
16/09/1940 11.55 Foulness 8 – H.Es exploded and about 1000 I.Bs burnt out
Island near Small Gains Farm. No damage or casualties.
16/09/1940 21.30 Canvey 5 – H.Es exploded near No 8 Gun Site of
Island 167th R.A. Battery at Northwick. Slight damage to property, 1 slight casualty (a soldier).
16/09/1940 22.35 Brentwood 1 – A.A. Shell exploded by side of Priests Lane.
Slight damage to property. 1 fatal casualty (Mr Burges)
16/09/1940 23.30 Thundersley 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field at rear of “The
Rookery” Church End. No damage or casualties.
16/09/1940 23.35 Brentwood 5 – H.Es exploded in Mascalls fields. 2 South of
L.N.E.R. and 3 20 yards North of L.N.E.R. 300 yards West of Mascalls Bridge. Telephone wires down on Railway. Damage to property. 4 horses wounded one had to be destroyed.
16/09/1940 23.35 Thundersley 1 – H.E. exploded near Nortons Depository, Bread
& Cheese Hill. Gas main, overhead telephone and electric cables damaged. London Road partly blocked. Depository completely wrecked and a bungalow badly damaged. 1 slight casualty (a female)
16/09/1940 23.40 Thundersley 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field East of “Acacia
Lodge” Mount Road (exploded 08-09 the 17th) No damage or casualties.
16/09/1940 23.45 South 3 – H.Es exploded in a field near Water Tower. No
Benfleet damage or casualties.
16/09/1940 23.55 Thundersley 1 – H.E. unexploded between 2nd & 3rd bungalow
Downer Road, South side of Bread & Cheese Hill. Damage to property and gas main. No casualties.
16/09/1940 23.55 Brentwood 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in back garden of
Carlton Mansion Warley Hill. No damage or casualties.
16/09/1940 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded on Marshes 600 yards North of
Land Reclamation Works. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 00.01 Childerditch 1 – H.E. exploded 200 yards East of Church, also
12 I.Bs in the vicinity and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out in a field 20 yards East of Childerditch Road opposite the Church. No casualties. Windows broken in the Rectory.
17/09/1940 Hadleigh 1 – H.E. exploded and 2 Oil I.Bs failed on Marshes.
50 yards from sea wall and 150 yards West of Fambridge Ferry Steps. Also 7 I.Bs between Droughton, Seymour, London & Chelmsford Road. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 00.30 Hadleigh I.Bs (a number) at “Olaf” Woodfield Road &
vicinity. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
17/09/1940 03.00 North 2 – H.Es exploded in a field at rear of “Homewood”
Benfleet Thistle Drive & adjoining South View Avenue. 1 Bungalow badly & others slightly damaged. No casualties.
17/09/1940 03.00 Langdon 5 – H.Es 3 exploded in fields at junction Lewooton
Hills Land & 2 unexploded at rear of Fobbing Farm. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 03.30 Bowers 1 – H.E. exploded and 1 I.B. burnt out in a
Gifford field, 150 yards from Arterial Road in Church Road. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 04.25 Canvey 6 – H.Es exploded, 2 at Westwick Farm, 2 at
Island Hole Haven Creek and 2 H.Es and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out 50 yards of land side of sea wall, 1 mile North of Lobster Smack. Also a large number of I.Bs near No 8 Gun Site and at Dutch Village. Damage to property. 2 slight casualties at Winter Gardens.
17/09/1940 Pilgrims 1 – H.E. exploded near The Forge Coxtie Green
Hatch Road. Overhead electric and telephone cables down. No casualties.
17/09/1940 04.30 Nevendon 2 – H.Es exploded, 1 at Romford Farm and 1
opposite the Post Office. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
17/09/1940 North 2 – A.A. unexploded Shells, 1 is 150 yards North
Benfleet and 1 1/4 mile North West of “Mona-Bene” Holmfield Avenue. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 Billericay Three cows electrocuted due to drifting Barrage
Balloon fouling electric cables.
17/09/1940 South 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in the garden of
Benfleet “Rosemead” London Road. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 04.30 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded in a field at Blue House Farm 20
yards North of Railway and 300 yards West of Church Road. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded in Old Hall Wood Thorndon
Park near Hatch Farm (believed fell 12th). No damage or casualties. Not dealt with 23.7.41
17/09/1940 04.45 North I.Bs (a number) near North Benfleet Hall Bardfields
Benfleet Farm Smith’s Farm, Fanton Hall & Cotswold Farm. No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 05.55 South 4 – H.Es exploded in fields at Jotmans Farm. No
Benfleet damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 09.20 Rayleigh 3 – H.Es exploded in a Nursery off Downs Road. 1
slight casualty. Slight damage to property.
17/09/1940 12.28 Pitsea Body of German Airman found on Marshes behind
the Land Reclamation Works Ltd. Parachute partly open. Rank Captain Ludwig Dethner. Identity Label A.B.L. 51578 Disc 27697
17/09/1940 20.00 Ingrave 1 – H.E. unexploded 500 yards to rear of Thrift
Cottage. Also 1 A.A. unexploded Shell in Thrift Wood behind Thrift Cottage Hanging Wood Lane. No damage or casualties. A.A. B.D.S. 2.12.40?
17/09/1940 20.30 Herongate 1 – Oil I.B. burnt out in garden of “Berrie House”.
No damage or casualties.
17/09/1940 20.50 Shenfield 1 – H.E. exploded in garden of “Clifton House”
Worrin Road. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
17/09/1940 20.50 Ingrave 2 -H.Es exploded near The Rectory. Damage to
property. Electric and telephone cables down. 1 slight casualty.
17/09/1940 21.00 Crays Hill 1 – H.E. exploded in a garden of “Outlands”
Gardeners Lane. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
17/09/1940 21.10 Basildon 1 – H.E. exploded near The Rectory. Water and
Gas mains damaged. Sewer damaged. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
17/09/1940 21.20 Basildon 2 – H.Es unexploded in fields at Bury Farm, 1 West
side of Gardeners Lane, 500 yards North of Arterial Road and 1 120 yards South of Farm. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 00.05 Shenfield 2 – H.Es exploded at “Hillrise” & “Kynnersley”
Worrin Road. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
18/09/1940 00.15 Brentwood 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field at Calcott Hall Farm
Ongar Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 01.35 North 1 – H.E. exploded in a field at Bardfield Farm. 2
Benfleet Poultry houses destroyed and windows broken in bungalow. No casualties.
18/09/1940 01.35 Vange 1 – H.E. exploded 50 yards South of Railway line
and 2 Oil I.Bs burnt out in fields 50 yards East of “Gordon House” Timberlog Lane. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 01.40 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded in a field at May Farm Briscoe
Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 01.48 Pitsea 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 200 yards from
Felmores Farm Briscoe Road. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
18/09/1940 02.15 Great Warley I.Bs (a number) in vicinity of Headley Common.
Hedge on fire. No casualties.
18/09/1940 03.00 Raweth I.Bs (a number) burnt out in fields at Humas’s
Farm Water Lane. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 03.15 South Weald 2 – H.Es unexploded and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out in
fields at Boyles Court. Water main damaged. No casualties.
18/09/1940 03.45 Canvey I.Bs (a number) burnt out at Hole Haven Creek.
Island No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 12.30 Nevendon 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 120 yards at rear of
Police houses. Slight damage to Police property. No casualties.
18/09/1940 16.00 Hawkwell 1 – Cannon Shell unexploded in garden of
“Eltham”. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 Basildon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 100 yards North of
Rectory Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 17.20 Hadleigh 1 – H.E. exploded in a field on West Hill Salvation
Army Colony, 200 yards North of Railway lines. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 17.30 Rayleigh German Airman landed by parachute in a field by
Old Barn Farm Wickford Road. Abrasions on face.
18/09/1940 17.30 Bowers German Junkers 88 bomber crashed and burnt out
Gifford on Marshes South of Railway lines and 1 mile West of Church. Crew 2 bailed out. 1 Jacob Wene 28 years safe at Maldon, 1 dead at Vange and Gefrey Hans Bushbeck 23 years dead at Billericay Hospital.
18/09/1940 17.30 Thundersley German Airman’s broken parachute straps found
in garden of “Great Tarpots”. Thought to belong to the dead German at Vange.
18/09/1940 Canvey 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 300 yards from
Island Central Avenue Winter Gardens. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.30 Great Warley 6 – H.Es exploded in vicinity of Susses Road. 6
slight casualties. Extensive damage to property.
18/09/1940 Rochford 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell on path in allotments at
back of Slomans Cottage Ashingdon Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.30 Brentwood 2 – H.Es 1 exploded and 1 unexploded in a field off
Honeypot Lane 20 yards North and 400 yards East of Hill Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 Vange 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 50 yards South of
Railway Lines Timberlog Lane. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.30 Brentwood 1 – H.E. exploded in a disused well at rear of 22
Cromwell Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.32 Shenfield I.Bs (a number) on Shenfield Common on grounds
of Ursuline Convent & Cornslands. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.45 South Weald 1 – H.E. exploded in a field North of Half-way
House Farm 150 yards from Weald Road. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 20.58 Rayleigh A German white silk parachute found at Walfords
Farm Hullbridge Road.
18/09/1940 22.30 Mountnessing 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 15 yards to rear
of 5 Tobey Lane. In a field of Bakers Farm. No damage or casualties.
18/09/1940 23.15 Brentwood 1 – H.E. unexploded behind Sports Pavilion on Gas
Company Sports Ground. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 00.30 Little Warley 4 – H.Es exploded in a field North side of Arterial
Road 1 is 200 yards East and the remainder 500 yards West of Warley Street. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 04.00 Hutton 2 – H.Es unexploded, 1 in garden of “Normanhurst”
and 1 in garden of next house. No damage or casualties. (Disposed of by B.D.S. 18.10.40?)
19/09/1940 04.00 Shenfield 1 – H.E. unexploded in garden of “Oddicom”
Shenfield Gardens. No damage or casualties
19/09/1940 04.00 Hutton 7 – H.Es unexploded at Hutton Residential
Schools. 1 through a shelter causing 3 slight casualties. Slight damage to property. B.D.S. ? Some outstanding.
19/09/1940 04.00 Wickford 10 – H.Es, 1 is unexploded. All in fields 100 yards
from Cemetery Nevendon Road. No damage or casualties. 17.1.41 B.D.S.
19/09/1940 Wickford 2 – H.Es exploded in a field near “Brentford Lodge”
Nevendon Road. Slight damage to property. No casualties.
19/09/1940 05.00 Brentwood 1 – H.E. exploded 30 yards North of Railway lines
near Nags Head Lane. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 05.00 Little Warley 3 – H.Es exploded, 1 on road and 2 in fields 150
yards West of Warley Crossroads. Up track S.L.T. Telephone cables damaged. No casualties.
19/09/1940 14.00 Basildon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field at Friens Farm
400 yards South West of Farm house. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 21.30 Ramsden 1 – H.E. exploded at rear of “Cassels” Church
Bell House Road. Slight damage to property No casualties.
19/09/1940 21.40 Crays Hill 1 – Oil I.B. burnt out in garden of “Woodside”
London Road. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 21.40 Foulness 2 – H.Es 1 exploded and 1 unexploded and 1 I.B.
Island burnt out at Nazewick Farm. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 8.11.41
19/09/1940 21.45 Crays Hill 3 – H.Es exploded on main road. Crays Hill. Road
blocked for 500 yards West of Gardeners Lane A.129. Water and gas mains damaged. No casualties.
19/09/1940 21.48 North 3 – H.Es 2 exploded and 1 unexploded in Little
Benfleet Hills meadow Fanton Hall Farm. 1 two near Pylon SEE/PD.11. Unexploded 50 yards South of Railway bridge (taken away by B.D.S. 12.10.40). No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 21.50 Doddinghurst I.Bs (a number) in fields between Outings
Land & Church Lane. No damage or casualties.
19/09/1940 22.05 Downham I.Bs ( a number) in fields near Hawkeswood Road
& De Beanwood Lane Crows Heath. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 00.45 Pitsea 1 – H.E. unexploded 3/4 mile along inner wall of
Small Gains Creek, East of “Creek House”. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 01.00 Basildon 1 – H.E. exploded at “Gordon Lodge” Rectory
Road. House demolished. Road blocked (open 20.9.40). Water and gas mains damaged, electric cables down. Slight damage to other houses, 2 slight casualties (shock).
20/09/1940 01.30 Bowers 1 – H.E. exploded 40 yards North of Laindon Road
Gifford and 70 yards East of Sadlers Farm. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 03.15 Vange 1 – H.E. exploded in a field at Marsh Farm
Brickfields Road. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 04.00 Bowers 2 – H.Es exploded 400 yards South and 250
Gifford yards South West of Smoky Farm. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 04.49 Canvey I.Bs (a number) at Waterside Farm. No damage or
20/09/1940 04.50 Canvey 2 – H.Es exploded 300 yards East of No 8 Gun Site
Island Northwick. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 05.00 Canvey I.Bs (a number) in fields at Leeches Farm. No
Island damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 22.50 Wickford I.Bs (a number) 75 yards East of Railway Station,
No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 Brentwood 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in garden of 88 Costead
Manor Road. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 Little Warley 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 300 yards South of
“Beredens” Front Lane. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 3.5.41.
20/09/1940 Ingrave 1 H.E. unexploded in a field at Botany Hill Farm,
35 yards East of Blind Lane & 300 yards North of Botany Hill. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 23.00 Crays Hill I.Bs (a number) burnt out in a field off Church
Lane. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 23.00 Mountnessing 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field North East of
Westlands Farm. No damage or casualties.
20/09/1940 23.15 Wickford I.Bs (a number) at rear of “The Chase” London
Road. No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 03.00 Great 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field at Stony Hills Farm.
Warley No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 03.00 Little 2 – H.Es 1 exploded and 1 unexploded on
Burstead greensward 400 yards North of junction Dunton and Rectory Roads. Slight damage to road (the unexploded H.E. exploded 5.10.40 road open). No casualties.
21/09/1940 03.30 Pitsea The roof of 8 houses damaged by shrapnel from
A.A. gun fire at Howards Crescent. No casualties.
21/09/1940 04.00 East 1 – H.E. unexploded on footpath South side of
Horndon Arterial Road 300 yards East of Moor Lane. (A.127 closed). Telephone cables down. No casualties.
21/09/1940 04.00 Billericay I.Bs (a number) at Outward Farm. No damage or
21/09/1940 04.20 Crays Hill I.Bs (a number) between Crays Hall Farm and
“The Parsonage”. Slight damage to Crays Hall. No casualties.
21/09/1940 Shenfield 1 – H.E. unexploded under floor of room of “Tirley”
Priests Lane. Damage to property. No casualties. (removed 8.10.40 by B.D.S.)
21/09/1940 20.30 Wickford 1 – H.E. exploded in mid-air at “Westview”, The
Chase London Road. 1 slight casualty. Slight damage to property.
21/09/1940 21.30 Hockley 1 parachute mine unexploded in garden of
“Mornings Quest” Aldermans Hill Road B.1013 blocked. No damage or casualties. (Rendered harmless by Admiralty 22nd removed 24th)
21/09/1940 21.45 Great Warley 2 – H.Es exploded near the Church, Warley Street.
Structural damage doors and windows blown in. Slight damage to cottages. No casualties.
21/09/1940 22.00 South 2 – Parachute mines, 1 exploded and 1
Fambridge unexploded on Beckney Marshes. 11/4 miles South West of South Fambridge Ferry Steps (the unexploded was exploded by B.D.S. 6.10.40). No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 22.09 Rayleigh 1 – Parachute mine unexploded at entrance of the
Recreation ground. (Rendered harmless by Admiralty 22nd). No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 22.20 Basildon Damage to roof of Post Office Church Road by
shrapnel No casualties.
21/09/1940 22.28 Wickford 1 – Parachute mine exploded 100 yards West of
Elder Avenue. Damage to property, 3 slight casualties.
21/09/1940 22.35 Nevendon 1 – Parachute mine exploded in mid-air 50 yards
South of Nevendon Hall Farm. No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 22.50 Laindon 1 – Parachute mine unexploded 75 yards North
West end of Bourne Avenue (exploded by Admiralty 27th). Extensive damage to property. No casualties.
21/09/1940 South 1 – Parachute mine unexploded at Jotmans Lane
Benfleet 300 yards from Railway bridge and 40 feet from Railway. Train service suspended (rendered harmless by Admiralty and burnt by B.D.S. 7.10.40) No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 23.00 Basildon 1 – Parachute mine exploded 50 yards West of
Honeypot Lane Basildon Road (rendered safe by Admiralty 26th and burnt by B.D.S. 26th November 1940) No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 23.00 Basildon 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in a field 70 yards
East of Honeypot Lane. No parachute attached (rendered safe by Admiralty 23rd and destroyed by burning by B.D.S. 7.10.40). No damage or casualties.
21/09/1940 23.00 Laindon 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in a field North
side of Dunton Road 300 yards West of Fortune-of-War P.H. (Dunton Road blocked between Fortune-of-War and Rectory Road) Mine exploded 16-00 the 22nd. Damage to 30 houses 2 children killed (Patrick G Cooksey, 15 years and James H Howard 14 year) Identification circumstantial.
22/09/1940 00.27 Canvey 1 – H.E. exploded on a domestic shelter in garden
Island of “Fenwick” Church Parade Winter Gardens. Damage to property. No casualties.
22/09/1940 21.00 Pilgrims 1 – H.E. unexploded in part of field 200 yards North
Hatch of White Horse P.H. and 300 yards from road. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 08.30 Laindon Electric cables damaged by shrapnel from A.A.
gun fire in Elizabeth Drive 100 yards East of Northumberland Avenue. No casualties.
23/09/1940 Laindon 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 300 yards South of
Arterial Road and 50 yards West of Lower Dunton Road. Slight damage to property, no casualties.
23/09/1940 Coxtie Green 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 100 yards
South of Coxtie Green Road and 100 yards East of Park Lane. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 North 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a ditch on North side
Benfleet of Burnt Mills Road. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 Great Warley 1 – H.E. and 1 – A.A. Shell both unexploded in
garden of “Woodside Cottage” Warley Road Upminster Common. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 21.30 Little Warley 1 – Parachute mine exploded near Little Warley
Hall. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 21.30 South Weald 1 – H.E. unexploded in Workers field 100 yards
from Lincoln Road and 100 yards from Workers Cottage. No damage or casualties (exploded by B.D.S. 24.9.40).
23/09/1940 21.30 Coxtie Green 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 200 yards West of
Lincoln Farm. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 Night Vange Horse killed by shrapnel 4 inches long through
corrugated iron roof of stables at “Longmond” Ravens Court Drive.
23/09/1940 22.30 South Weald I.Bs (a number) in fields and gardens at Weald
Side. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 22.30 Shenfield 3 – H.Es exploded and 3 Oil I.Bs burnt out in fields
at Palmers Farm. 4 cows, 2 heifers and 1 bullock slaughtered and 1 heifer slightly injured.
23/09/1940 Mountnessing 1 – H.E. unexploded at South West corner
of field at junction of Mountnessing Road and Padhams corner near Buttsbury Wash. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 22.35 Herongate 3 – H.Es exploded in a field 30 yards South of “Old
Ship Cottage” Hatch Farm. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 Mountnessing 3 – H.Es exploded in a field 500 yards East
of Westland Farm. No damage or casualties.
23/09/1940 23.40 Billericay 1 – H.E. exploded and 1 Oil I.B. burnt out on lawn
of “Norsey Manor” Slight damage to property, no casualties.
23/09/1940 23.59 Billericay 2 – H.Es exploded in gardens of “Belvedere” and
“Banlah” Jacksons Lane. Shed demolished and slight damage to other property. No casualties.
23/09/1940 24.00 Ingrave 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 40 yards from
Childerditch Hall and 2 Oil I.Bs burnt out in Wilson’s Orchard Childerditch. No damage or casualties.
24/09/1940 08.45 Herongate 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in garden of “Lokaja”
No damage or casualties.
24/09/1940 09.00 Billericay A British aeroplane engine found in a field 300
yards West of Mill Hill Wood.
24/09/1940 09.30 East Horndon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell near hedge on
West side of Moor Lane opposite Folfs Farm (road closed) open 18-10 24th. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 16.10.41
24/09/1940 Laindon 1 – A.A. exploded Shell in garden of
“Avonlea” Highwich Drive Primrose Estate. No damage or casualties.
24/09/1940 20.45 Raweth 11 – H.Es 1 exploded between Council houses and
Gooses Cottages, 8 exploded and 2 unexploded in fields between Burrels Farm and Beeches Road Crossing Road A. 130. No damage or casualties. (Unexploded disposed of by B.D.S. 4.10.40)
24/09/1940 Coxtie Green 2 – A.A. unexploded Shells at Coxtie Green Farm,
100 yards from road.
24/09/1940 21.30 Great Warley 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in Hartswood. No
damage or casualties. (exploded 29th by R.Es damage to property).
24/09/1940 21.45 Little Warley Damage to roof and windows at Little Warley Hall
and cottages nearby. Cause (H.E. on Upminster beat. No casualties.
24/09/1940 21.45 East Horndon 2 – H.Es exploded on permanent way of
LMSR 200 yards West of bridge over Little Warley Lane. Light engine derailed. No casualties. (Line open 26th)
24/09/1940 22.00 Wickford 2 – H.Es exploded in a field West of 5th Avenue
Shotgate. No damage or casualties.
24/09/1940 22.55 Little 1 – Parachute mine exploded in a field 400 yards
Burstead South West of St Margarettes Farm. 6 sheep destroyed.
24/09/1940 23.05 Little I.Bs ( a number) in fields at Botony Hill Farm. No
Burstead damage or casualties.
24/09/1940 23.10 Crays Hill 1 – Parachute mine unexploded 30 yards from a
house and 100 yards South of A.129 Wickford to Billericay (road blocked) (exploded 4.10.40 by B.D.S.) Telephone wires down 50 houses damaged, 7 seriously. No casualties.
25/09/1940 08.05 Hutton 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 20 yards North of Collins
Farm. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 30.4.41
25/09/1940 Laindon 1 – A.A. unexploded 70 yards South of junction Dry
Street and Leawooton. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 Laindon 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell on footpath outside
“Fraji”. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 13.30 Raweth 1 – H.E. exploded 100 yards East of Highlands
Farm. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 21.30 Coxtie Green 2 – H.Es exploded in a field opposite Gilstead Hall
300 yards from road on Mc Turks land. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 22.30 Mountnessing 1 – Parachute mine exploded in mid-air over
fields at rear of Woodlands Farm. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 22.30 Mountnessing 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in a field at
rear of Bullmans Farm Swallows Cross. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 23.20 Billericay 1 – Parachute mine exploded in mid-air between
Mountnessing Road and Western Road. No damage or casualties.
25/09/1940 23.25 Billericay 1 – Parachute mine exploded at rear of “Kiaora”
South Green 1 slight casualty 25 houses badly damaged.
25/09/1940 23.30 Great 1 – Parachute mine exploded 100 yards South of
Burstead road A.129, opposite Culle’s Metal Works. Factory damaged extensive damage to houses. 40 people homeless, 6 slight casualties.
26/09/1940 01.15 Foulness 8 – H.Es exploded near Military Road at Landwick.
Island No damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 02.15 Vange 1 – H.E. exploded in garden of “Parva” South View
Road. Extensive damage to property. No casualties.
26/09/1940 Little 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in garden of “Clements”
Burstead Broomhill Estate. No damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 Pitsea 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell 500 yards North of Land
Reclamation Works Ltd. And 400 yards East of Sea Transport Stores. No damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 15.25 Basildon 1 – H.E. exploded in a field 500 yards North West
of junction Gardeners & Rectory Lanes. No damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 Great Warley 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 40 yards South
of Codham Hall Lane and 1/4 mile West of Warley Street. No damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 21.40 Vange 1- Parachute mine exploded in a field at Tomkins
Farm 600 yards from A.13. 1 horse and 7 cows killed others injured. Extensive damage to property.
26/09/1940 22.00 Downham 1 – Parachute mine exploded near “Kites”. No
damage or casualties.
26/09/1940 22.00 Ramsden 1 – Parachute mine exploded in a field 300 yards
Heath East of Church Road. Damage to Police houses. No casualties.
26/09/1940 22.00 Laindon 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in a field between
Leatwooton Lane and Bell Hill Road 600 yards North of Dry Street. Road closed. (rendered safe by Admiralty 27th, road open exploded 5.10.40. No damage or casualties.
27/09/1940 02.00 Pitsea 3 – H.Es exploded on Marshes 1/4 mile East of
Sea Transport Stores. No damage or casualties.
27/09/1940 Hutton 1 – H.E. exploded 100 yards North and 1 – A.A.
unexploded Shell 1/4 mile West of Cresseys Farm. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 30.4.41
27/09/1940 Thundersley Damage to roof and property by shrapnel at
“Highfield” Rayleigh Road. No casualties.
27/09/1940 Night Brentwood 1 – Parachute mine unexploded in Donkeyland
Plantation. No damage or casualties. (exploded by R.Es 29th Damage to surrounding property).
27/09/1940 East 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 1/4 mile East of
Horndon Dunton Hills Farm house. No damage or casualties.
28/09/1940 01.25 Ramsden 2 – H.Es exploded. 1 Fourty acre plantation and 1
Heath in field off Outward Common Road. Slight damage to property. Telephone wires down. No casualties.
28/09/1940 02.15 Great Warley I.Bs (a number) in vicinity of Woodman Road and
Headley Chase. No damage or casualties.
28/09/1940 02.20 Downham 5 – H.Es exploded. 1 is 10 feet from Railway 300
yards West of Castledon Road Bridge and 4 in lane to “De Beavoir House”. Extensive damage to property. No casualties.
28/09/1940 04.00 Pitsea No 4 Haywards Crescent (Council Property)
damaged by shrapnel to roof. No casualties.
28/09/1940 04.05 Ramsden I.Bs (a number) in a field 1/4 mile North of the
Heath Searchlight Post near Mill Lane. “Longleigh” a bungalow burnt out. No casualties.
28/09/1940 09.00 East 1 -A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 100 yards North
Horndon of L.M.S. Railway and 100 yards West of Hall Lane. No damage or casualties.
28/09/1940 23.10 Thundersley Roof of “Hillside” Rayleigh Road damaged by
shrapnel. No casualties.
29/09/1940 06.45 Rayleigh 1 – I.B burnt out in a garden at rear of bungalow in
Nelson Road. No damage or casualties.
29/09/1940 07.15 Hockley I.Bs (a number) burnt out in fields of Lovedowns
Farm Lower Road. Also machine gunning of cattle and buildings. No damage or casualties.
29/09/1940 Rayleigh 1 – I.B. unburnt in hedge at Trinity Road. No
damage or casualties. (deposited at Rochford Police Station)
29/09/1940 South 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field at “Rochetts”
Weald Near Searchlight Post 30 yards from road. No damage or casualties.
30/09/1940 Great Warley 1 – A.A. unexploded Shell in a field 10 yards South
East of electric light pole at corner of wood near “Warley Lodge” stables. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 28.4.41
30/09/1940 17.35 Nevendon Parachute of pilot and engine of a Spitfire which
crashed 5.9.40, found in a field at Nevendon.
The Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain has been described as the first major military campaign fought entirely in the air. The Royal Air Force (RAF) defended Britain against large scale attacks by the Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force. The battle’s duration lasted from 10th July 1940 until the 30th October 1940 which was overlapped by the period of The Blitz. Lasting from the 7th September 1940 until the 11th May 1941 the Blitz was an attack of continued night-time bombing operations on Britain when daylight attacks proved to be unsustainable. The Battle of Britain and the Blitz marked the first major defeat of Germany’ military forces when their operations failed to give Germany air superiority over Britain. The planned land invasion of Britain, code-named Operation Sea Lion, was cancelled on 17th September 1940 and was never put into action.
With the fall of France in June 1940, German dictator Adolf Hitler wanted to humiliate France by having them sign the surrender document in the same carriage and the same siding that Germany had signed the Armistice in 1918. Hitler then turned his attention to Britain where he believed he could attain a swift victory to concentrate on territories to the east. He ordered the occupation of the Channel Islands. On the 28th June 1940 the Germans bombed the islands and full occupation was completed by the 4th July 1940. The Channel Islands were the only part of Britain to be occupied.
On the 2nd July 1940 Hitler ordered the German “High Command of the Armed Forces” to begin preliminary planning for the invasion of Britain code-named Operation Sea Lion. The Luftwaffe bombed the Welsh city of Cardiff on the 3rd, 10th and 12th July 1940 with the dock areas primarily the target as they were the largest coal-port in the world. Cardiff was confirmed as the capital of Wales in 1955.
Further bombing by the Luftwaffe targeting mainly coastal-shipping convoys and ports began on the 10th July1940. The Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the attacks on the south coast. The forthcoming battle took its name from Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s speech to the House of Commons on the 18th June 1940. Churchill’s speech was – “What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin”.
Failure to achieve air superiority and bad weather over the Channel resulted in the postponement, on the 5th August 1940, of the invasion of Britain. The Battle of Britain began on the 13th August 1940 when the Luftwaffe began a two week assault which focussed their bombing raids on British airfields and radar stations in preparation for an invasion. German bombers, even though they had fighter escorts, took massive losses when British fighters were waiting for them owing to the information received from their radar stations. Downed RAF pilots on home soil could fight again while German pilots became prisoners of war. By the 15th August 1940 the Luftwaffe abandoned the air attacks on the radar stations to concentrate on RAF bases. They were hampered by poor aircraft range and the British extensive use of radar.
In a speech to the House of Commons on the 20th August 1940 Churchill gave his famous speech about “The Few” referring to the RAF crews who were fighting the Battle of Britain.
On the 25th August 1940 the Luftwaffe bombed St. Giles Cripplegate Church located in the City of London at Moorgate. Whether the bombing was deliberate or not will never be known but the target was well away from any industrial sites. On the 25th August 1940 Churchill ordered the bombing of Berlin as retaliation and on the 26th August 1940 British bombers flew over for the first time. Only superficial damage was done but the raid was a success. Inefficient use of searchlights and anti-aircraft guns enabled the British bombers to return
On the 3rd September 1940 having failed to gain control of the skies over Britain Hitler ordered a postponement of the invasion of Britain. By the 10th September 1940 Hitler agreed the invasion should begin on the 14th September 1940. The navy proposed a revised date of the 24th September 1940 as they did not have sufficient landing craft ready and were waiting for the correct tides in the Channel and hoping for decent weather. In the meantime, the Luftwaffe was instructed to intensify the air raids on Britain. By the 17th September 1940 Hitler was convinced Operation Sea Lion was not viable and therefore postponed the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
On the 10th September 1940 the Corpa Aereo Itataliano (CAI) was formed after Italian dictator Benito Mussolini insisted an element of the Italian Air Force should assist his German ally during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz.
On the night of the 24th /25th October 1940 the Italian Air Force conducted their first raid on Britain when they attacked Harwich and Felixstowe. Their next major operations on the 29th October 1940 when Italian bombers escorted by fighter aircraft bombed Ramsgate.
The Battle of Britain ended on the 31st October 1940 when just 3000 RAF pilots broke the will of the Luftwaffe. The bombing raids were changed from day-light to night-time attacks against London on the 7th September 1940 known as the Blitz.
BATTLE OF BRITAIN DAY
Battle of Britain Day is given to the day of the large-scale aerial battle that took place on the 15th September 1940. The climax of the Battle of Britain was when the Luftwaffe embarked on a large all-out attack against London where 1,500 aircraft took part in the air battles, which lasted until dusk. The designated annual commemoration of BATTLE OF BRITAIN DAY is therefore the 15th September.
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC
A major part of the naval history of the Second World War was the Battle of the Atlantic. Included in this theatre of war was the North Sea. The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
(July to December)
On the 2nd July 1940 Adolf Hitler ordered the German High Command to prepare for Operation Sea Lion. Part of the preparation was that minefields and U-boats would be positioned in the English Channel to limit the threat posed by the Royal Navy.
On the 1st August 1940 the Italian Royal Navy established a submarine base at Betasom near Bordeaux. In accordance with the signing of the Pact of Steel with Germany in June 1939, Italy was expected to participate in the Battle of the Atlantic when they entered the war in June 1940 on the side of the Germans.
A British destroyer flotilla sailed from Immingham to the Dutch coast to lay mines on the 31st August 1940. Reconnaissance aircraft had located a German force heading for Britain. The flotilla was ordered to intercept but before engaging with the enemy they ran into an unchartered minefield. Two destroyers were sunk and another had to be towed back to their base. The German invasion force turned out to be a small mine-laying unit transferring from Cuxhaven to Rotterdam.
American President Roosevelt approved the “Destroyer for Bases Agreement” on the 30th August 1940. America exchanged fifty destroyers for the right to operate, either naval or air bases, on nine various British colonies near the U.S. eastern coastline.
In the month of October 1940 German U-boats inflicted heavy convoy losses in the Atlantic as they sank 39 allied vessels.
Acting Captain Edward Steven Fogarty Fegan was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on the 5th November 1940. Fegan commanded the armed merchant cruiser HMS Jervis Bay who was escorting a convoy of thirty seven ships in the North Atlantic. When they were attacked by German pocket Battleship Admiral Scheer, Jervis Bay immediately engaged with the enemy head on and maintained an unequal battle for three hours. This engagement gave the convoy time to scatter. When the out-gunned and burning Jervis Bay finally sank, the badly wounded Fegan went down with his ship.
During the course of December 1940 a total of forty one ships (234,707 tons) were sunk by German U-boats with a further nine ships (73,141 tons) damaged. The total number of ships damaged or sunk in 1940 was five hundred and sixty three.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR September 1940
Radio Belgique was established on the 18th September`1940 and the first broadcast from the BBC in London was on the 28th September 1940 to Nazi-occupied Belgium. The broadcast was in French and Dutch with Victor de Laveleye in control of the French service and Jan Moedwil in control of the Dutch service. The Germans immediately created a collaborationist radio station to the Belgian audience to obviate the potential effect Radio Belgique could have on their control of information broadcasted to the occupied country.
On the 23rd September 1940 the British and Free French Force troops attempted landing at the port of Dakar in French West Africa. Brigadier Charles de Gaulle believed he could persuade the Vichy French forces in Dakar to join the Allies as this would have caused a great deal of political upset for the Vichy French colony. To achieve this the Allies decided to send a task force, accompanied by the British aircraft carrier Ark Royal, to Dakar with orders to negotiate with the Vichy French governor for a peaceful occupation. If this proved not to be successful the city would be taken by force. British Fleet Air Arm aircraft dropped propaganda leaflets over Dakar followed by Free French aircraft flying off HMS Ark Royal and landing at Dakar airport and whose crews were immediately taken prisoner. A boat with a representative of General de Gaulle entered the port but it was fired on by the Vichy French defenders. An engagement between the British fleet and the shore batteries lasted for several hours. Vichy destroyer L’Audacieux was hit and had to be beached and two Vichy submarines were sunk. Overall, the attack on Dakar did not go well for the Allies as the Vichy forces did not back down. Of the Allied battleships, HMS Resolution was torpedoed and HMS Barham was hit by two shells from the shore batteries. British cruisers HMS Australia and Cumberland were also damaged. Simultaneously an attempt was made by Free French troops to attack coastal defences but fog and the Vichy defenders continued to halt the attack. Eventually General de Gaulle called off the assault on the 25th September 1940, leaving Dakar and French West Africa in Vichy hands.
King George VI inaugurated the award of the George Cross on the 24th September 1940 in recognition of the bravery of civilians. An important factor for keeping up public morale was when the King and Queen Elizabeth stayed in London during the Blitz. On the 10th September 1940 Buckingham Palace was bombed and the Royal Chapel was destroyed on the 13th September 1940. After the raids Queen Elizabeth declared: “I’m glad we have been bombed. Now I can look the East End in the face”. German dictator Adolf Hitler considered the Queen ‘to be the most dangerous woman in Europe’ with her ability to boost the morale of her citizens during their darkest hour.
Following the attack by the Germans and retaliation by the British for the bombing of Cripplegate Church in London in August 1940, Britain began large scale bombing raids on Berlin in September 1940. Little damage was achieved owing to inferior nocturnal navigation and bomb aiming and daylight raids produced unacceptable heavy losses to British aircraft. Following the fall of France, Britain had no other means of carrying the war to Germany and therefore bombing was seen as the only option. When the Second World War began American President Roosevelt requested that all major participants confined their air raids to military targets. America it this stage of the war was neutral. Britain and France agreed to this request providing their opponents did the same.
September 1940 saw the escalation of heavy losses to convoys in the Atlantic by German U-boats. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill wrote that “the only thing that ever really frightened me during the war was the U-boat peril”. While Britain was winning the Battle of Britain in the air the U-boats, using their brand new bases in France, attacked ships almost at will. The Royal Navy was at full stretch with patrolling the Atlantic and the Mediterranean since Italy had joined forces with Germany. For the first time in September 1940 the U-boats began using “wolf pack” tactics to attack convoys sailing from North America to Britain. The convoys at times suffered as much as 20% losses of heavily-laden cargo ships. During the period from July to September 1940 German naval commanders referred to these times as “the happy time” with the main target being oil tankers. The highest recorded losses were 11 ships on the 26th September 1940 and 12 ships on the 7th September 1940.
In retaliation for the assault on Dakar by the Allies on the 24th September 1940 the Vichy French Air Force, based in North Africa, bombed the British base at Gibraltar. Fifty aircraft dropped 150 bombs on the dockyards and harbour and on the 25th September 1940 a further one hundred aircraft dropped 300 bomb on the same targets. Some damage was caused but there were few casualties suffered as most of the bombs missed their targets.
On the 1st September 1940 the German government ordered all Jewish people to wear yellow stars of David. After the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, France and Belgium during May/June 1940, anti-Jewish policies were gradually implemented. Racial legislation and discrimination became more prevalent with all Jews forced to register with the German authorities. The dispossession of Jewish assets was the beginning of the preparation for the deportation to the Death Camps.
Hitler called for Operation Sea Lion to be postponed on the 3rd September 1940. Operation Sea Lion was the German codename for the invasion of Britain. With the Luftwaffe struggling for air supremacy over Britain, Germany was ill-prepared for an invasion. They were ill-prepared because of the waning strength of the Luftwaffe and the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) having suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Norway a few months earlier. Without any practical experience to land an amphibious attack, and lacking purpose built landing craft, the Kriegsmarine assembled over 2,000 river barges which would need to be towed by tugs. Although modified the barges had poor seagoing characteristics totally unsuitable for the bad weather that can occur in the English Channel in September. By early September 1940 Germany had also assembled 168 transport ships. For the tides to be right to facilitate landing troops on the south coast of England they would have to wait until late September 1940. The invasion was not a practical proposition and was postponed.
The invasion plans having been suspended, Hitler turned his attention to destroying London in an attempt to demoralise the population and force the British to come to terms. Hitler’s determination to disable Britain may actually have strengthened Britain’s determination to fight. From the 7th September 1940 bombing raids on London began. German Dictator Adolf Hitler had ordered a new policy the previous day that the strategy, known as “The Blitz”, whereby London was to be attacked in order to draw RAF Fighter Command away from the airfields of southern England. London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days or nights.
The German high command had agreed the invasion of Britain should begin on the 14th September 1940. The navy made revisions to their schedule and set the date back until the 24th September 1940 when the tides would be favourable for a German invasion. Air superiority had not been achieved by the 14th September 1940 and Hitler ordered Hermann Göring, commander of the Luftwaffe, to intensify the air raids.
The large-scale daylight attack of London on 15th September 1940 was the most notable but the Luftwaffe suffered significant losses for very little lasting gain. In order to evade attack by RAF fighters the Luftwaffe gradually decreased their daylight raids. By October 1940 the Blitz became a night bombing campaign. The 15th September annually is remembered as the Battle of Britain Day.
By the 17th September 1940 Hitler was convinced the invasion was not a viable proposition as the three branches of the armed forces had not co-ordinated their plans properly. He therefore postponed Operation Sea Lion indefinitely.
In Berlin on the 27th September 1940 the Tripartite Act was signed by Germany, Italy and Japan. The pact was an agreement directed primarily at the United States of America. As the theatres of war were on the opposite sides of the world the practical effect of the pact was minimal. The pact stated that Japan recognised the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new European order. Conversely, Germany and Italy recognised the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new Greater East Asia order. With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour and the declaration of war in 1941 against the United States, the Tripartite Act did not require a similar declaration of war from Germany and Italy.
The Italian invasion of Egypt lasted from the 13th to the 16th September 1940 and was a strategic operation against the British. Italy had enjoyed a long term presence in North Africa as they had occupied Libya since 1932. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was determined to expand that presence by invading and seizing Egypt during the North African campaign. In 1936 a British-Egyptian agreement was signed whereby Britain had the right to occupy Egyptian territory in the event of a threat to the Suez Canal. Following Italy’s declaration of war against Britain the Egyptian parliament broke off diplomatic relations with Italy. On the 9th September 1940 bombers of the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) attacked British airfields in Egypt and the British retaliated by launching air strikes against Italian airfields , supply points and the concentration of troops. Although vastly outnumbered the small British defence force resisting the Italians were forced to retreat to the east. When the Italians occupied the previously held British territory the British retreated further until they reached the prepared positions near the city of Mersa Matruh. The Italians followed but the invasion of Egypt had stalled on the 16th September 1940. After the Italians had followed the British retreat having marched approximately 50 miles they halted and called off the invasion. The Italians were not able to achieve success during this operation owing to the indecisiveness of the Italian command coupled with the fact they had insufficient armament and transportation.
On the 9th September 1940 a bombing raid on Tel Aviv caused the death of 137 civilians. In Palestine the Italian Air Force bombed the city in an effort to strike at Britain and the Commonwealth throughout the Middle East. Tel Aviv was targeted because the Italian bombers were intercepted by British aircraft. The bombers were forced to turn back from their intended targets of port and refineries of Haifa and received orders to drop their bombs on the port of Tel Aviv. The civilian area was where the bombs landed instead of the intended target of the port of Tel Aviv.
On the 10th September 1940 the Corpa Aereo Italiano (CAI) was formed after Mussolini insisted that an element of the Italian Air Force should assist his German ally during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. The CAI achieved limited success during its brief existence as it was generally hampered by the inadequacy of its equipment.
(Other Theatres of War)
In Romania on the 6th September 1940 King Carol II abdicated. During the coup d’état of 1930 Prince Carol declared himself King Carol II. He encouraged the development of a modern economy, cultural initiative and maintained alliances with France and her allies in Eastern Europe. His growing admiration of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and the increasing agreements with Nazi-Germany including anti-Semitism plus the political unrest in Romania he declared himself a dictator. Following disagreements with France in July 1940 King Carol II announced that Romanian alliance would be with Germany but political unrest demanded his abdication in favour of his son King Michael I. After the abdication King Carol II went into exile settling in Mexico.
In America on the 16th September 1940 selective peacetime conscription began with the “Selective Training and Service Act of 1940”. President Roosevelt signed this act which was the first peacetime conscription in United States history. Conscription required the registration of all men between the ages of 21 and 35 with the selection for one year’s service by national lottery. When Germany conquered France many Americans supported the return of conscription as they believed that a German-Italian victory would endanger the U.S.
The Japanese invasion of French Indochina began on the 22nd September 1940 and the fighting continued until the 28th September 1940. The fighting was an undeclared confrontation and the main Japanese objective was to prevent the Republic of China from importing arms and fuel and thereby blockading China. On the 25th September 1940 the French administration in Indochina officially handed over the territory to Japanese control. In the meantime, Japanese troops occupied the airfield outside Hanoi together with several rail marshalling yards and by October 1940 the Japanese were running Indochina.
On the 28th September 1940 German- occupied Norway appointed Vidkun Quisling as Head of State who led his fascist collaborationist government to power. The Quisling Regime, as it became known, was to remain in power until May 1945 when the Second World War in Europe ended.
Air Raid Damage Reports Brentwood Division Essex Fire Service August 1940.
Date Time Location Damage
01/08/1940 02.04 Little Warley 4 – H.Es Whistling type in orchard at Little Warley
Hall. No damage or casualties.
02/08/1940 Hadleigh 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 30 yards East of
Florence Gardens. No damage or casualties.
03/08/1940 21.00 Canvey Barrage Balloon drifting from barge. Struck by
Island lightening and destroyed off Coryton.
03/08/1940 21.45 Hutton 4 – H.Es 2 are unexploded in garden of Hillwood
and Redbourne. Garage damaged. 1 exploded at Pea Hill Wood (slight damage to house) 1 exploded at junction of Hillwood and Ridgeway. Gas water and telephone wires damaged. Hillwood Grove closed.
03/08/1940 21.50 Langdon 5 – H.Es 1is unexploded near Goldsmiths. No
Hills damage or casualties.
03/08/1940 23.35 Rochford British Spitfire crashed at Tinkers Lane. Squadron
Leader Sayers killed.
06/08/1940 10.43 Canvey Barrage Balloon grounded at Hole Haven.
09/08/1940 22.45 Foulness 6 – H.Es 5 in a field and 1 in the sea at Fishermans
Island Head. No damage or casualties.
09/08/1940 23.35 Barling 3 – H.Es (Whistling Type) unexploded in fields near
Kingsmead Cottage and Ropers Farm. No casualties or damage.
10/08/1940 01.09 Downham 4 – H.Es 1 unexploded in a field at Fremnetts Farm
(Safe 11th Inst) House damaged. Telephone, electric cable and gas main damaged. 3 horses injured.
10/08/1940 01.35 Brentwood Barrage Balloon grounded in cricket ground of the
10/08/1940 08.15 Sutton Barrage Balloon caught and grounded on
Overhead Aeroplane Trap wire at Fleet Hall Farm.
14/08/1940 Paglesham 1 – H.E. unexploded near High House Farm. No
damage or casualties.
15/08/1940 South Weald 3 – I.Bs between Spital Lane and Park Farm
Doddinghurst. No damage or casualties.
16/08/1940 12.40 Crays Hill 1 – A.A. unexploded shell at Gurnards Farm near
White Bridge. No damage or casualties.
16/08/1940 13.55 Little Warley 2 – H.Es unexploded in field. 1 150 yards South
and 1 200 yards South East of Blue House Farm. No damage or casualties.
18/08/1940 13.15 Pitsea 3 – A.A. unexploded shells. 2 on Marshes and 1 in
garden of Springfield. No casualties or damage. B.D.S. 18/8/40
18/08/1940 17.35 Foulness German Heinkel bomber shot down at Gains
Island Farm. Crew 2 injured and 3 uninjured taken prisoner.
18/08/1940 17.40 Fambridge British Spitfire shot down. Plane landed in Malden.
Squadron Leader J. Gordon of North Weald landed by parachute, suffering slight burns.
19/08/1940 00.10 Canvey A.A. Nose Cap at “Shell Beech”. Telephone and
Island house rafters damaged. No casualties.
19/08/1940 00.10 Canvey 6 – H.Es 1 is unexploded in a lake at Lakeside
Island End. 2 exploded North of Dutch Village, 1 at Tewkes Creek, 2 in garden of “Meleta” Liege Avenue (slight damage and 1 slight casualty a female of 34 years) also a large number of I.Bs at the Winter Gardens. Grass fires and haystack damaged by fire.
19/08/1940 01.00 Paglesham 7 – H.Es 1 is unexploded in a pool and 5 exploded
in Waterside Lane. Tiles and windows broken in cottages. Also 20 I.Bs on South Hall Marshes. No casualties.
19/08/1940 01.00 Potton Island 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field opposite Oyster Bed.
No damage or casualties.
19/08/1940 01.00 Paglesham I.Bs 60 or 70 at East End. No casualties or
19/08/1940 01.20 Potton Island 1 – Oil I.B on North side of Sea Wall. Slight
damage to sea wall. No casualties.
19/08/1940 01.21 Foulness 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field between Little and
Island Great Shalford. No damage or casualties.
20/08/1940 17.00 Haven Gore British Spitfire shot down. Pilot safe, slight injury.
21/08/1940 12.44 Brentwood 2 – H.E.s 1 is 300 yards East of Railway Station on
embankment. L.N.E.R. partly blocked by a tree and debris And 1 at Myrtle Road. 4 houses demolished and 4 badly damaged. 5 slight casualties.
23/08/1940 06.15 Laindon Barrage Balloon drifting in a South Easterly
24/08/1940 16.00 Barling I.Bx number unknown. No casualties. Gorse fire.
24/08/1940 16.01 Canewdon German Messerschmitt 109 crashed 400 yards
outside RAF Station. Pilot safe.
24/08/1940 16.02 Great German Bomber shot down at Senns Farm. Crew
Wakering 3 captured.
26/08/1940 15.25 Pitsea British Hurricane crashed. Number of plane
P.3966. Pilot safe.
26/08/1940 15.25 Great Warley 70 – H.Es 51 in the vicinity of Warley Common, 14
at Pump Farm. 2 unexploded at the Croft and 1 100 yards South of Horton Road. Also 17 I.Bs between The Mental Hospital and Warley Barracks. Water main damaged. Road A.186 closed, 1 house badly damaged and 5 slightly. 5 casualties, 2 serious (Road open 29/8/40). Bombs safe 13/9/40.
26/08/1940 15.25 South Weald 13 – I.Bs 4 at Rochetts, 9 in fields between Spital
Lane and The Vicarage Lane. No casualties or damage.
26/08/1940 15.45 Rochford German Dornier 17 crashed on Aerodrome. Crew
2 injured and 2 prisoners safe.
26/08/1940 15.46 Foulness British Hurricane crashed. Machine badly
Island damaged. Pilot safe.
26/08/1940 15.47 Little Warley 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field at Little Bassetts. No
damage or casualties.
26/08/1940 15.48 Rochford Machine gun bullets. Civilian wounded.
27/08/1940 02.20 Mountnessing 2 – H.Es 1 is unexploded in garden of “The
Rest” and 1 exploded on greensward at Fitzwalters Corner. Gas, water and telephone cable damaged. No casualties. Road A.12 partly closed.
27/08/1940 02.21 Coxtie Green 2 -A.A. unexploded shells 1st Big field C/Green
Farm 2nd front Meadow Lincoln Farm.
28/08/1940 12.53 Great 1 – A.A. unexploded shell in cabbage field 150
Wakering yards North West of Trotters Farm. No casualties or damage.
28/08/1940 12.54 Rochford 58 – H.Es 18 on Aerodrome, 2 unexploded on Golf
Course, 3 on Southend Road B.1013 at Warners Bridge, 2 Ashingdon Road, 6 exploded and 1 unexploded on Railway Lines and 26 in vicinity of Rectory Road. Railway Line blocked near aerodrome. Rectory Road and B.1013 blocked. Water, gas, electric and telephone services damaged. Farm buildings on golf course damaged. 3 houses demolished, 6 badly damaged 2 stacks fired. The Oxford Social Club demolished, 4 casualties slight. Rectory Road open 5/9/40
28/08/1940 12.58 Hawkwell 5 – H.Es 2 unexploded and 1 exploded in garden at
Harwood Avenue and 2 exploded between Old Cottage, Iron Lane and Railway Station. Damage to property. No casualties.
28/08/1940 12.59 Rochford 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field near Showman
Cottage Asking Road, 200 yards South of Holt Farm. No damage or casualties.
28/08/1940 13.00 Wallasea 33 – H.Es 17 are unexploded 200 yards East of
Island Tile Barn Farm. No damage or casualties.
28/08/1940 13.00 Foulness 5 – H.Es 1 is unexploded at Rugwood. Remainder
Island at White Houses and Marshes. No casualties or damage
29/08/1940 00.12 Sutton 4 – H.Es2 are unexploded at Flat Hall Farm. No
damage or casualties
29/08/1940 00.12 Shopland 2 – H.Es unexploded at Mucking Hall Wood Farm.
No damage or casualties
29/08/1940 02.22 Rochford 2 – H.Es 1 is unexploded at Hillfield 300 yards
South East of Senior School. Sewer damaged at Hillfield. No casualties
29/08/1940 03.10 Foulness 3 – H.Es 1 unexploded 1/4 mile South East of
Island Landwick Police Post, 1 is exploded at Friends Farm and 1 exploded 300 yards East of Friends Farm. Also 1 I.B. 100 yards West of Coopers Slaughterhouse. No casualties or damage.
29/08/1940 03.20 Canvey 10 – H.Es at Winter Gardens and 40 and 60 acres.
Island Florence and Bankside bungalows badly damaged. Gas main damaged, 1 slight casualty (shock).
29/08/1940 03.26 Vange 4 – H.Es 1 is unexploded 100 yards South of
Vange Camp. No damage or casualties.
29/08/1940 19.20 Basildon British Hurricane shot down. Pilot from South
30/08/1940 16.30 Rochford British Spitfire wrecked at Cherry Orchard Lane.
30/08/1940 16.35 South 1 – H.E. exploded in a garden in Benfleet Road,
Benfleet B.1014 closed. Slight damage to property. No casualties. Also 1 I.B. near Bardfield Farm.
30/08/1940 16.35 Basildon 4 – H.Es 2 exploded in Gardiners Lane and 2 in
Burnt Mills Road. Gardiners Lane blocked (open 5.9.40). No casualties.
30/08/1940 16.35 Wickford 13 – H.Es 3 exploded near Warners Garage. 4 in
Chelmsford Road and 6 unexploded in fields at Castleton Farm, Castle Road. 1 house damaged in Chelmsford Road. No casualties.
30/08/1940 16.35 Ramsden 12 – H.Es in vicinity of Glebe Road, 2 in drive of
“Highcliffe” Langden Avenue, 1 house damaged in Glebe Road. No casualties.
30/08/1940 16.40 Canvey 1 – H.E. unexploded near Number 3 Gun Site, 96th
Island Light A.A. Battery, 200 yards East of London Coastal Oil Wharf. No damage or casualties.
30/08/1940 16.40 Thundersley Grass fire and damage to electric cable. Cause
30/08/1940 16.45 Hadleigh 1 – Cannon Shell making hole in roof of
“Woodlands” Gleve Way and 1 unexploded A.A. shell in garden of the Willows. Also roofing and ceilings damaged by shrapnel at “Conifers” and “Egerton” Milton Road. No casualties.
30/08/1940 16.45 Canvey Machine gun bullets through the roof of the
Island Dewdrop Inn, Urmine Road. Tiles and ceilings damaged. No casualties
30/08/1940 16.50 Hutton 3 – Cannon Shells in drive of “Retlaw” “Middleton”
and “Oxford”. Shrapnel through roof of garage at “Retlaw”. 1 slight casualty P Smith gardener wounded. Also dog wounded at “Retlaw”.
30/08/1940 17.00 North 2- H.Es unexploded between Smilers Farm and
Benfleet Lower Avenue ? Pound Lane. No casualties or damage.
30/08/1940 17.00 Rochford 2 – H.Es 300 yards North of Butlers Farm, Sutton.
No casualties or damage.
30/08/1940 17.00 Pitsea 1 – H.E. unexploded at “The Willows”, The
Crescent. No damage or casualties.
30/08/1940 17.00 North 15 – H.Es 14 unexploded in fields near Bardfields
Benfleet Farm. Also 1 exploded and 1 I.B. burnt out. No damage or casualties. B.D.S 6.3.41
30/08/1940 17.00 Nevendon 6 – H.Es in a field near Cranes Farm, 1 is
exploded. No damage or casualties. B.D.S. 6.3.41
30/08/1940 17.00 Crays Hill 4 – H.Es in a field near Great Wasketts Farm,
Gardiners Lane. Slight damage to 2 cottages. No casualties.
31/08/1940 00.05 Billericay 3 – H.Es 2 are unexploded, 1 at Cowbridge Grange
and 1 at Haven Gore, 1 exploded at Blunts Wall Farm. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 01.00 Hutton 2- H.Es at Hunters Chase. No damage or
casualties. Also a Cannon Shell at “Homestead” Mount Avenue. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 01.55 South Weald 4 – H.Es at Rochetts. Windows broken and
ceilings down at Farm House. No casualties.
31/08/1940 02.00 Little 1 – H.E. unexploded in a field 200 yards to rear of
Burstead Winger Farm. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 10.25 Foulness British Hurricane crashed near the Repair
Island Experimental Works. Machine damaged. Pilot injured and moved to Shoeburyness Municipal Hospital.
31/08/1940 13.14 Brentwood 4 – H.Es unexploded on L.N.E.R. line 300 yards
East of Three Arch Bridge. Rail traffic suspended. Road A. 128 closed (Rail & road open 2.9.40). No casualties
31/08/1940 13.15 Little 1 – H.E. unexploded 150 yards South West
Burstead of Bullers Farm. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 13.25 Ingrave British Spitfire crashed at Thorndon Park.
Machine burnt out. Pilot safe.
31/08/1940 13.25 Rayleigh Pilot injured landed by parachute moved to
Southend Municipal Hospital Rochford. From plane which crashed at Leigh-on-Sea.
31/08/1940 13.31 Thundersley 1 Incendiary bullet causing grass fire near the
School, Rushbottom Lane. No casualties.
31/08/1940 14.45 Rayleigh Grass fire at Kenworth Gardens (cause unknown)
31/08/1940 18.00 East 9 – H.Es in vicinity of Railway Station, 3 cottages
Horndon demolished, 1 uninhabitable, 1 casualty (female 50 years). 1 exploded near The Ropary Hoes Factory (Factory damaged). Also 30 I.Bs on fruit farm and in fields off Hall Lane 150 yards North of Railway.
31/08/1940 18.01 Shenfield A.A. unexploded shell in the garden of “Minster”.
No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 18.25 Wickford British Spitfire crashed and wrecked at Fanton
Chase Shotgate. Number of plane 2544. Pilot safe.
31/08/1940 21.45 Hadleigh Suspected chlorine gas. Mr & Mrs Potter and Mr
Phillips and son with symptoms.
31/08/1940 23.05 Nevendon 1 – H.E. unexploded South of Arterial Road and
300 yards off Nevendon Road. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 23.20 Little 1 – I.B. burnt out in a field North East of Abbotts
Wakering Hall Farm. No damage or casualties.
31/08/1940 23.20 Wickford 11 – H.Es 2 exploded near Cotwold Farm and 8 in
the vicinity of Welbeck, Cranfield Park Road, Welbeck extensively damaged, 1 exploded near Copfold Farm. No damage or casualties.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR August 1940
Carrier HMS Argus, loaded with a dozen Hawker Hurricane and two Blackburn Skua fighters of 418 Flight RAF, was part of Operation Hurry heading for Malta on the 1st August 1940. Argus was escorted by HMS Arc Royal, three Battleships, two cruisers, and ten destroyers forming Force H. 0n route from Gibraltar they were attacked by two waves of Italian aircraft but the attacks were successfully repelled. Of the twelve Hurricanes which flew from Argus two crashed on landing and the remainder were used as defence against aerial attack during the Siege of Malta.
On the 14th August 1940 Sir Henry Tizard departed England for Washington in the USA. He travelled with Royal Air Force (RAF) Group Captain Pierce on the day following the Battle of Britain effectively began. Tizard was an English chemist, inventor who developed the classification of petrol octane rating. He was also the Rector of Imperial College London which was the centre for scientific research, and was also involved in the development of radar. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was finally convinced that Tizard should go to the U.S. to obtain the technical research on which the British radar system could be improved.
During the Battle of Britain, on the 13th August 1940 the Luftwaffe began to focus on bombing raids upon British airfields and radar stations. With the radar systems Britain possessed an effective air defence system and although the Luftwaffe air strikes did substantial damage to radar sites they were able to continue operating. The information received provided sufficient warning to enable British fighters to be in the air to attack the assaulting bombers and fighters. By the 15th August 1940 the Luftwaffe abandoned the air attacks on the radar stations and concentrated on RAF bases. On the 18th August 1940 due to heavy losses of German bombers, Luftwaffe fighters were ordered to protect the bombers. Both sides suffered heavy losses with the RAF losing 21% of their fighter pilots and the Luftwaffe losing 16% of their fighter pilots. To overcome British losses fighter construction was increased but it was more difficult to replace pilots.
In his speech to the House of Commons on the 20th August 1940 Churchill included his famous address about “The Few”, referring to the efforts of the RAF crews who were at that time fighting the Battle of Britain. On the 16th August 1940 Churchill visited the operations room in the Battle of Britain Bunker at RAF Uxbridge. He was so moved by what he saw that he composed the words “Never in the history of mankind has so much been owed by so many to so few”. In his speech he changed the phrasing of the wording in the section:- “The gratitude of every home in our island, in our Empire, and indeed throughout the world, except in the abodes of the guilty, goes out to British airmen, who undaunted by odds, unweary in their constant challenge and mortal danger, are turning the tide of the world war by their prowess and by their devotion. Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few”. Officially the Battle of Britain ended on the 31st October 1940 as Germany’s attention was aimed at the large scale night time bomb attacks on London known as The Blitz.
On the 25th August 1940 Churchill ordered retaliation bombing of Berlin following the attack and destruction of St. Giles Cripplegate Church and surrounding area on the previous day. The church stands within the City of London at Moorgate which is well away from any strategic industrial sites. It was the first area in the city that was hit by a German bomber. Just after midnight on the 26th August 1940, for the first time, British bombers flew directly over Berlin and dropped bombs. Anti-aircraft fire and searchlights were ineffective because not one British aircraft was brought down and all air crews returned safely to their bases. The occupants of Berlin were stunned as they had been told enemy planes would not break through Berlin’s anti-aircraft defence system. Restoration of St. Giles began in 1965 and was incorporated in the modern Barbican Estate.
On the 31st August 1940 the British Destroyer Flotilla sailed from Immingham to the Dutch coast north-west of Texel to lay mines. The flotilla was joined by part of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla and while they were laying mines they were ordered to intercept a German naval force heading toward Britain. En-route to intercept the flotilla ran into a newly laid uncharted minefield. HMS Express was badly damaged causing many casualties after running into a mine where she lost most of bow. HMS Esk came to assist but also hit a mine and swiftly sank. The whole crew but one was lost. HMS Ivanhoe was badly damaged when hitting another mine whilst transferring the wounded from Express, causing more casualties. On the 1st September 1940 HMS Kelvin fired on Ivanhoe to scuttle her and the remainder of the flotilla returned to port including Express which was towed in. In all approximately 300 sailors were killed with another 100 being injured or taken prisoner of war when their rafts drifted onto the Dutch coast and were detained by the German authorities. The German invasion force the air reconnaissance had detected turned out to be a small mine laying unit transferring from Cuxhaven to Rotterdam.
Following the surrender of France to Germany in June 1940, Brigadier General Charles de Gaulle departed to London rather than surrender. On the 2nd August 1940 the Vichy French government sentenced de Gaulle to death for treason against France because he had formed the Free French movement in London. He had called for the French people to resist the Germans in his radio broadcast on the BBC. He also claimed sovereignty over France by forming a second government-in-exile.
General Phillippe Le Clerc landed at Douala in French Cameroon on the 27th August 1940 where he rallied the Free French to capture the town. French Cameroon was overseen by the pro-Vichy governor Richard Brunot. He was forced to hand over the civil administration of the state to Le Clerc and the Free French who had moved into Yaounde following the landing.
German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler gave the Luftwaffe’s commander-in-chief Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring a directive (Directive No. 17) to launch an assault against Britain on the 1st August 1940 with RAF Fighter Command being the prime target. Göring promised Hitler the assault would achieve the required result within days but certainly within weeks. The 5th August 1940 saw the first of a number of postponements owing to bad weather in the channel. The 13th August 1940 marked the start of the German’s Battle of Britain codenamed “Adlertag” (Eagle Day). Over a ten hour period waves of bombers were launched against British airfields in Essex, Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. The intention was to test British capability to subdue widely separated attacks. They only achieved moderate success but it did demonstrate to British Fighter Command the difficulty in engaging German bombers in sufficient numbers to inflict significant losses. On the 24th August 1940 St. Giles Church Cripplegate and surrounding areas in Moorgate was attacked with considerable destruction imposed. Hitler had given instructions that St. Paul’s Cathedral was not to be damaged and as St. Giles is only a short distance away it is possible the bombers were jettisoning their bombs or just experiencing navigational errors. Hitler was outraged when Britain retaliated with the first night time bombing mission on Berlin and ordered the bombing of London to be intensified. On the 31st August 1940 the Germans mounted their largest operation in which Fighter Command losses were the heaviest of the whole Battle of Britain. Thirty nine British aircraft were shot down and fourteen pilots killed. On the same day Göring believed the attacks on British Radar stations were ineffective and decided to abandon these attacks to concentrate on the bombing of British cities. This error of judgement gave Fighter Command the opportunity to have fighters in the air to intercept the oncoming bombers.
On the 17th August 1940 Hitler ordered a total blockade of Britain as a means to the weakening of the island prior to Operation Sea Lion. On the 22nd August 1940 German coastal long range artillery pieces, sited at the Pas-de-Calais in France, began to shell the Dover area aiming for both the town and any shipping located nearby. Over a thousand rounds were fired up to 1944 when the Allied invasion of Europe began. A major problem with the long range super-heavy guns was their barrels wore out relatively quickly therefore they could not fire very often as the barrels were difficult to make and expensive to replace.
Under the 1939 Molotov/Ribbentrop Pact Russia had territorial rights granted over part of Romania who therefore lost all the territory gained by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. At the outbreak of the Second World War Romania had adopted a policy of neutrality which was guaranteed by Britain and France. Following the fall of France and Britain being besieged by the Germans the Romanian government turned to Germany to obtain similar guarantees. On the 30th August 1940 Adolf Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini dictated to Romania they must hand over the Northern Transylvanian territory to Hungary. Romania agreed to the terms of the partition and the territory was handed over to Hungary.
On the 1st August 1940 the Italian Royal Navy established a submarine base at Betasom near Bordeaux in France. Italy and Germany had signed the Pact of Steel in June 1939 and following Italy’s entry into the war the Germans allocated a sector of the Atlantic south of Lisbon in Portugal for them to patrol. Betasom was selected to be their base which was in the German occupation zone. Italy played their part in the Battle of the Atlantic from 1940 to 1943.
The Italian conquest of Brtish Somalia was part of the East Africa Campaign which began on the 4th August 1940. Italy with Eritrean and Somali forces of Fascist Italy confronted British Commonwealth and Somali irregular troops. Rainy weather and the British defence of the colony hampered any speed and mobility of the Italian expedition. The Italian forces headed for Tug Argan (tug is the local word for dry riverbed) with only the local police force conducting a delaying action while the British and Commonwealth troops retreated to Tug Argan. The Battle of Tug Argan was fought between the 11th -15th August 1940 when the Italians overran the colony and the British were ordered to evacuate the area and arrived at the port of Berbera on the 19th August 940 where the Royal Navy evacuated the British troops. Italy had won a decisive victory over the British.
The Greek cruiser Elli was at anchor off the island of Tinos on the 15th August 1940 when she was sunk by Italian submarine Delfino. Three torpedoes hit Elli and she caught fire and sank killing nine petty officers and sailors and wounding a further twenty four. However, the sinking of Elli took place in peacetime two months before the outbreak of the Greco-Italian war. The Greek government, in the meantime, were aware of the perpetrator but did not want confrontation with Italy. They announced the nationality of the attacking submarine as being unknown.
U.S. Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy reported from London that a British surrender was inevitable unless Britain had military assistance from the United States. On 16th August 1940 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt that if Britain was defeated her colonial islands nearest America could become a direct threat if they fell into German hands. Although not wanting to get involved in another European war Roosevelt proposed a “Destroyers for Bases Agreement” and on the 30th August 1940 he approved the deal. On the 3rd September 1940 destroyers, that were not vital to U.S. security, were transferred to the Royal Navy. In exchange for fifty destroyers Britain granted land, rent-free on 99-year leases, in nine various British colonies. These bases were available either for naval or air force facilities.
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed a constitutional republic of the Soviet Union on the 2nd August 1940. The new republic consisted of the Romanian regions of Bessarabia and North Bukovina and was occupied by the Soviet Union military in June/July 1940. The Soviet Union occupied the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on the 3rd August 1940, where they were incorporated into the Soviet Union as constituent republics. Recognition of this incorporation was never accepted by most western powers. The military annexation of these states was part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939.