War Diary of AA Laporte Payne July 1916

War Diary of AA Laporte Payne




Brigade Diary, Personal Diary, Operation Orders, Note Books, Memoranda &




July 1916




At 7.30, a.m., the British Infantry crossed No-Man’s-Land to attack the German Positions East of Albert. This Brigade co-operated with the Tyneside Scottish.  The zone allotted to it was the whole of la Boisselle Salient, and a strip about 750 yards wide running from the salient in a N.E. direction.  The Infantry attack was greatly held up by machine guns, which the enemy brought up from deep dug-outs after the bombardment, and our first waves of infantry, having passed behind them and on to the enemy support line, were cut off.  The fight then resolved itself as far as we were concerned into a struggle for the position of the labyrinth of trenches in and around la Boisselle.


In this attack the Brigade lost two of its officers.

2nd Lieutenant W.C. Hickman was killed.

Do       T. Crumbie.

Both these officers were Liaison Officers, the former attached to the Right attacking Battalion, and the latter to the Left.


(Subsequently these officers were replaced by 2nd. Lieut. le Maistre, and 2nd Lieut. Webber.)

JULY 2 to 5, 1916.


Brigade War Diary.


The village of la Boisselle did not entirely fall into our hands until the 5th of July, when the 19th Divisional Infantry consolidated a line running round its northern and eastern outskirts.  During these days our Batteries were chiefly employed in preventing fresh troops and supplies reinforcing the la Boisselle garrison from the direction of Ovillers, and at night barraged the approaches from the Pozieres direction.  This according to the accounts of prisoners taken was carried out most successfully.  Several parties of the enemy in the now shallow trenches were effectively fired on, and considerable casualties were observed by the Forward Observing Officers.


From the evening of the 1st July the 18 pdr Batteries of the Brigade were firing continuously a barrage for 72 hours, after which batteries were relieved from firing two hours at a time; but the barrage was continued up to the time of relief by the 89th Brigade.


Great assistance in the clearing up of la Boisselle by the Infantry Bombers was given by this Brigade firing on the trenches.


JULY 6, 1916.

As ordered I went to the 56th Infantry Brigade Headquarters as Liaison Officer.  After reporting there I went into la Boisselle.  Practically the whole of the place was taken, but the village was in a fearful mess.  I took a German telephone from a dug-out.


At night I returned to the O.P.


JULY 6, 1916.

Brigade War Diary.


The Brigade was relieved by the 89th Brigade R.F.A. 19th Division.  A/175, was placed under the orders of the O.C. 160 Brigade, and moved into a forward position.


C and D, 175 Brigade came under orders of 152, Brigade, R.F.A. without moving from their positions, and continued in action. B/175, C/176, and D/152 were formed into a Mobile Group under Lt. Col. W. Furnivall.


JULY 7, 1916.

At the O.P.

About dawn a cross attack developed from la Boisselle by our troops. They moved across the open at right angles to our line of fire.  The troops were of the 19th and 23rd Divisions.  It was a good show.  We fired in front of our men, and enfiladed the German communication trenches, now used as firing trenches.  We sniped with one gun with good effect which could be seen.  At least a dozen were killed in one place with one officer.


The 12th Division attacked Ovillers.




It is about time I sent to you more particular news than what is contained in Field Service Post Cards. Now at last I have some time to spare in which to collect my thoughts and write a letter, which I hope I shall be able to send off to day.


No doubt you have seen in the papers all about “Der Tag” for which we have waited and prepared for so long, and it may be you know a good deal more about it than I do, if you can sift the grains of truth from the chaff of journalist efforts. Perhaps for the present I had better leave the papers to tell you of what happened in case I tread on forbidden ground.  The Morning Post will give you the best accounts no doubt.  I hear that the July the 3rd issue is one that contains the best account.


However there is little I can tell you.


We registered on June 23 and 24. On the following day we began in earnest to bombard the Boche lines and to try and cut their wire.  I was at the O.P. the whole time and saw all there was to see on our particular front, which was perhaps the worst part of the line of attack.


Up to the Day, July 1st the weather had been foul, but then it was a glorious day.  In the early morning the bombardment grew to a great intensity, and our splendid infantry went over the top at 7.30, a.m.  As our O.P. was quite near and a little above the front line on the slope of a hill, we had as good a view as any one on the whole front.  The infantry of our Division were magnificent.  They did all that was humanly possible.  I shall never be in danger of despising the Boche as a fighting machine.  They can fight.  But it was machine guns that did all the damage.  Our fellows never had a chance in the face of that fearful fire from their immediate front and in enfilade long before they could hope to get near the enemy.  As a result there was no bayonet work, and what little close fighting there was consisted of bombing.  It ended in a complete vindication of the machine gun in efficient and cool hands.  It was a sad day for us.


My job was to stay at the O.P., so I could not stray far. The O.P. is in two parts; the small hole on the surface of the hill side covered over by a sheet of iron, but with a slit, very narrow and surrounded with thistles, from which we observe; the rest consists of a steep flight of twenty steps leading straight down from the observing cupola to a deep dug-out.  We had dozens of shells on top of us but they never penetrated.  The dug-out is not pleasant.  I had no bed, and two of our telephonists had to live, carry on their job, and sleep in the place as well.  It is very small, so we were uncomfortably crowded.  Moreover the horrid place leaks rather badly, and the stairs are very muddy and slippery.  One has to bend double to get down, and then you knock your head on every beam on the way down.


The trenches are knee deep in mud now. Our food consists solely of bully beef in tins, jam in tins, and hard biscuits.  Water brought up in petrol tins is well flavoured.  Our kit is just what we stand up in with a tooth brush and a razor.  But we also have the various hanging ornaments with which we deck ourselves, disguised as itinerant hucksters or Christmas trees, such as glasses, compass, maps, helmets, gas bag, revolver, stick, belt and what not.


Living such a life in such conditions our tempers suffer somewhat, but it is wonderful how our fellows stick it and remain cheerful. I have watched our “tommies” with great interest.  After an attack the first thing they think of doing is to look for what they call “suveneers”, and then go fast asleep.


It is an extraordinary experience going over to the other side and seeing the places we have fired at for weeks.


And now I am thankful that I have come safely through so far, after witnessing the biggest attack our country has yet staged. But we have paid a great price.  I think we have helped a little.  For instance, this morning I was able to fire our guns just ahead of our attacking infantry into the Boche who were lining their trenches, and I know we accounted for several of them for I saw them fall under the shrapnel.  We should be very unlucky if that was our only tale in all these days.


I am thankful to say that the gunners of our Brigade suffered surprisingly few casualties. If only we could get the Hun on the run.


I have had no news of Pearse. His Division I know did fairly well.


Thank you for the chocolate, which was a godsend, and for the pyjamas, which I have not had an opportunity of wearing yet. I have not had my clothes off for a fortnight, and I do not see any prospect of shedding them even yet.  I hate myself at the moment, I need a bath badly.

I am quite fit and well, so I have nothing to complain about.


Our fellows have done their best, and whether we pull through or not lies in others hands, so it is no use worrying. To know that you are keeping cheerful at home, helps more than anything else.  Au revoir.  I must go to my blanket and get a wink.  I do not need hastening on my way to bed now.


Headquarters, R.A.

IIIrd Corps.

34th Divnl Arty.


The Commander-in-Chief visited Corps Headquarters this evening and when leaving directed me to convey not only his own warm personal thanks but that of the whole Army to all ranks of the Royal Artillery of the Corps that have taken part in the battle now in progress for the gallantry, skill, devotion and endurance with which they have carried out their duties in every particular.


He stated that he had issued an Order of the Day to the Army at large in which the services of the Royal Artillery in general had been specially mentioned but wished his appreciation and thanks to be conveyed more specifically to all ranks of the R.A., III Corps of which every individual officer, N.C.O. and man had worthily upheld the great traditions of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, beyond which no higher praise can be given.


  1. Uniacke.


Commanding Royal Artillery,

III Corps.

9th July, 1916.


JULY 10, 1916.

As no doubt you have seen in the papers, we have been fairly busy, and shall be, I suppose, for many weeks to come. The weather has been awful here, and the trenches are full of mud.


Yesterday I came down from the Observation Post and am now at the battery. I am at present sitting close to No. 4 gun, which is firing as hard as it can go, so you can imagine the noise.  The battle started on June 25th and the day before that I went up to the O.P., and have been there ever since with the exception of one day when I went as Artillery Liaison Officer to an Infantry Brigade.  We lived in a deep dug out, damp and smelly, which always dripped dirty water on us.  We existed on tea, bully beef and biscuits.  Our O.P. was exactly opposite La Boisselle, and just behind our front line.  We saw the whole show.  The Boche may be a brute but he can fight.  The weather the whole time had been bad, but July 1st was a beautiful day.  The infantry went over at 7.30, a.m.  I have since been to La Boisselle, and an awful sight it is.  Our troops have thoroughly searched the place for souvenirs.


JULY 10, 1916.

Brigade War Diary.


The positions for the four batteries of the Brigade were selected by Lt. Col. Furnivall on the eastern side of Sausage Valley, about 1500 yards S.E. of la Boisselle. Pits were dug and occupied.


The principal objectives of the 175th Brigade during the rest of this month in the forward position were the bombardment of the Switch Line, S.W. of Martinpuich, and the barraging of approaches to the same, and barrage fire N.E. of Pozieres in support of the attack by the Australian Division on that place, and subsequent attacks to the N. and N.E. of that place.  This fire had been continuously observed from our front trenches by the F.O.Os. of the Brigade.


JULY 11, 1916.

I was unable to finish my letter last night. We fire night and day still.  It gets rather wearisome after a bit, and the noise deafens one.  Very luckily we have had few casualties in the battery, or for that matter in the Brigade.  the young “shop boy” who was with us in the battery until April was killed the first day of the bombardment.  He was an awfully nice and cheery chap, never in the dumps.  He had worked very hard for sometime laying telephone lines, sometimes all day and all night.  When he had practically completed his job, and was sitting down under a tree for a short while a stray shell burst in front of him.  His name was Freeman-Cowan.


What do people at home think about the “move?” I should be interested to hear.  I have seen a paper of the 6th and La Boisselle seems to figure very largely in the communiqués.  There really was very hot fighting here, but some of the things the reporters say are not exactly truthful.


I am disgusted to see that, while the splendid Ulster Division did such heroic work here, and suffered such a lot, the politicians at home betray them.

The weather is again cold wet and windy.



July, 11, 1916.

I went up to the O.P. the day before the commencement of the bombardment, June 24th, and was there until the day before yesterday.  So I saw all the fighting on our sector.  I am glad to say we killed a few Boche, for I saw our shells hit them, and I expect we bagged a lot more unbeknown to us.


July 1st was a beautiful day, the only fine day we have had.  Otherwise the weather has been awful, so you can imagine what our trenches are like.


I have been into la Boisselle, which is in a fearful state. The dead are still lying about in places.  Our O.P. was heavily shelled, but it was strong and resisted most shocks.

Our infantry fought heroically, but the task was too much for them. The fight still goes on, and will do so indefinitely.


Our battery has had few casualties I am glad to say. There were eight of us in the small O.P. dug-out, officers and signallers.  I slept on the ground, and my clothes did not come off for over a fortnight, so you can imagine how I hated myself.


Previous to the attack our chief task was to cut wire. For that purpose we fired about 10,000, rounds.  On the day we were shelled with lachrymatory shells, which made us for a time quire blind, and the dug-out to smell for days.



July, 12, 1916.

The weather continues bad, and the fighting still goes on. I am at the gun line at present, but I must leave the Morning Post to give you the war news.


I enclose two flowers picked in the fields near la Boisselle. Even flowers grow in the trenches.  The fields of cornflowers and poppies are beautiful.  Some places are a mass of red, white and blue: poppies, daisies and cornflowers.  But poppies predominate.  There is not much left, however, where the Hun was.  There it is brown and broken by the bombardment.  The Boche have had some casualties, but we have suffered terribly too.


We have moved from our old gun position, and now are digging the guns in as best we can. It is everlasting work, this digging.  It is never done.  I do wish we could get the Hun on the move in the open; but it is a hard business.


JULY 19, 1916.

The weather tried hard to make amends for past failures this morning, but it has again clouded over and is trying to rain after all. I did not know it could be so persistent even in England.


We have moved our position for the third time, and we are now digging in as hard as we can. Our mess is in a Boche dug-out.  On the top in the trench is a sort of arbour with one side open, but partially covered with trellis work and a wisp of ivy.  We have our meals there.  On the walls are coloured illustrations from magazines in the typical German artistic style.  The Dug-out is very large and deep, and consists of spacious passages with three or four entrances, rooms with sleeping-bunks, kitchens and cupboards.  I have explored most but not all yet.  All passages are boarded, and the rooms Zinc-lined and papered.  Electric light too.


I have been to Contalmaison, or rather what remains of it. I enclose a Boche post-card I picked up there.  There are plenty of opportunities of collecting what the troops call souvenirs but I have no time to gather them or room to carry them.


The men sleep in the open, and are just dossing down for the night. We have to move out of our precious dug-outs tomorrow.



July, 19, 1916.

For a wonder today has been fairly fine, and it certainly is much warmer. We are again in a different position.  The officers’ mess is in a Boche dug-out.  Upstairs in the trench is a small arbour with a trellis work front and ivy growing up it in a box.  Inside the walls boast of coloured pictures out of a German Magazine.  Downstairs there are numerous rooms fitted with bunks, stoves, electric light.  The walls are zinc lined and papered.  I do not sleep here every night, as I have to sleep at the battery when I am on duty, and there there are only pits to sleep in.


I have visited a German battery, which was blown to bits. Such sights are cheering.  It was not far from Contalmaison.


JULY 20, 1916.

It has turned out a beautiful morning, just right for a holiday by the sea. The Boche is however making a horrid noise with his morning hate.  I suppose he is counter-attacking somewhere, or doing something equally annoying.

We spend our lives moving, digging or blazing away as hard as we can go.


Brigade War Diary.

The Brigade was attached to the 23rd Divisional Artillery and F.O.Os registered the German Switch Line (?) with observation from No-Man’s-Land.



July 21 1916.

Regular Forces.

Royal Regiment of Artillery.


R.H. & R.F.A.


The undermentioned 2nd Lieuts. To be temp Lts. 20th May 1916.


  1. LOWDEN.

(Morning Post Sat. July 22. 1916)



July 21 1916.

The weather is warmer and much finer. It is about time.  Last night I was gun-line officer and slept in the open next to the guns.  The dew was rather heavy, but otherwise it was quite alright.  On alternative nights I sleep in a palatial German dug-out.  At the entrance there is an arbour cut into the trench and fitted with trellis work covered with ivy.  Below there is a long passage from which several rooms have been cut in the chalk.  These are fitted with bunks.  There is a large kitchen containing stoves.  The whole place is fitted with electric light.  The Boche knew how to make themselves safe and comfortable.


This evening there is a beautiful sunset, perhaps a little too red to be of good omen. And alas! The country side is becoming rather late summer in appearance.


It seems hard to get the Hun on the move. He is a wonderful fighter and sticker.


I still keep fit and well, I am glad to say. But one day I shall enjoy the luxuries of civilization again.  Such seem very remote here.  My imagination hardly stretches to such things as baths, a room to one’s self, and living in the way one used to take for granted.  But I suppose I shall get into the way of it again, and all this will be as a dream.


July 22, 1916.


The night has gone off fairly quietly, although about 12.30, a.m., we had a gas alarm. Nothing came of it and we turned in again.  I have three gas helmets and a box respirator, so I ought to be safe against anything.  Still gas shells are very trying at times.  Unless they burst near to one they do not do much harm, but the smell is not nice.  It makes some people sick.  The gas has a habit of collecting in hollows, and at the bottom of dug-outs, and then it is essential to wear the respirator.  We had a lot the other night, and the concentration of gas was fairly strong.


This morning it is dull and somewhat colder, but as long as it does not rain I do not mind much.


The troops get hold of a large quantity of loot in the way of Boche equipment. Helmets abound.  I should like to find a good pair of Zeiss glasses, but so far I have not discovered any.  An automatic would be useful too.  But I do not intend to buy such things from the troops, which is done by some.  There is a regular auction in Albert for such things.


I little thought when I used to sit in the O.P. watching the village of la Boiselle that the place would become so notorious. And Contalmaison too.  This place is a most extraordinary sight.  Now it is merely a gigantic rubble heap.


It must be terrible for the French to have their towns and villages destroyed in this way. Thank God the Hun is not in England, and never will be now.  I should thoroughly enjoy myself if we ever got into Germany.  But I do not suppose our politicians would ever allow us to treat Bocheland in the way the Hun has treated France.


The Boche is much quieter this morning. But our fire goes on as usual.  It has now been continuous since the 24th June – just a month.  It gets a little wearisome after a time.


Our trouble here is water. It is very difficult to get.  Our water cart has to go backwards and forwards to a place some distance away every day to keep us supplied.  Then it is only to be used for drinking purposes, so we are hard put to it to get a wash.


JULY 28, 1916.

We have just left the line after 34 days and nights continuous firing for a rest of 48 hours. The men are tired and need a rest and baths are necessary.  (Thank you) for the cigarettes wrapped up in water-proof paper to prevent them getting damp.  The mud had disappeared at last, and now we are suffering from the dust.


I am at present sitting on the horses’ hay writing. Unfortunately we are not quite out side the range of gunfire.  They have just put 2 or 3 nasty black woolly shell over here; but did no damage.


It is not nice to discover dead things in one’s abode. Even dead birds in a summerhouse are unpleasant.  In our Boche dug-out we have been troubled by peculiar smells, so we determined to investigate and clear that part of our underground home, which was filled with debris, the aftermath of a bombing attack which should have cleared the place of Huns.  Eventually we discovered underneath the lumber two of the former inhabitants in not a nice condition.  Now the place smells of lime and other disinfectants.


Are you not sick of war news, war stories, war books? I am; but we still read our week old newspapers from end to end.


We are having beautiful [weather] now, just right for Henley.  We dream delirious moments of the sea-side, and nothing to do for months and months.  I am not at all looking forward to another winter out here.  In the old days they used to wage war properly and go “in hibernis”, into winter-quarters, and give up fighting for a while, which was sensible.  But we have fallen into evil habits.


I am sorry for the inhabitants of these parts. Every time we advance it means levelling their villages to the ground.  Artillery bombardments now-a-days are terrific.  Imagine miles and miles of country-side literally covered with shell holes turning the ground grey and brown, and miles of fire and communication trenches all mixed up owing to the advance.  All trees and vegetation destroyed.  It will be a very long time before they will be able to inhabit the villages and till the fields we fight over now.  In La Boisselle I could not find the roads, the houses do not exist, and the church is a mound of white rubble.


JULY 29, 1916.

It is a beautiful and hot day again. We did not rise early as we sat up very late last night after a heavy dinner of soup, tinned fish, lobster, sausages, peaches and English beer, the first for months.  We return to the line tomorrow.


This morning we had an inspection of horses. They are looking very thin. Poor things, they have had a bad time lately with so much carrying ammunition.  Later we had some revolver practice.  I started well but fell off sadly.



July, 29, 1916.

After 34 days of continuous firing night and day, we are out of the line for 48 hours so called rest.  We return tomorrow.  The weather is beautifully fine and hot.  Here at the wagon line, a good dinner last night, and a lie abed this morning were most acceptable.


Our Hun dug-out smelled very bad, so we determined to clear out that part which had been smashed in by bombing when the infantry were supposed to have cleared the place of Boche. Underneath we discovered two of those gentry in a condition hardly nice.  So now the place smells of lime and other disinfectants.


I have turned chaplain and undertaken the task of burying the dead once or twice, poor chaps. Once I made the cross myself out of the wood of a biscuit box.  I could not identify some.



Sunday evening, July 30, 1916.

Today has been a beautiful fine hot day. But then the dust becomes troublesome and covers everything with its whiteness.  Still I would rather have that than mud.


Today has been the quietest Sunday I have yet spent in France and on the Somme too!  I got up fairly late, for we are at the wagon line.  After breakfast there was an inspection of the horses, and then midday stables.  After lunch I slacked in the hot sun.  It was glorious.  At three in the afternoon I paraded the battery in their shirt sleeves, told the Roman Catholics to fall out, and then we had a service with practically the whole of the battery present including three subalterns.  It was the first service I had attended for a long time.  It did not last more than half an hour.  At the end the padre said a few words.  He spoke about the mote in a brother’s eye, and the beam in one’s own.  Then he went off about nations and national hatreds.  Without venturing too near he circled round the subject of loving one’s enemy.  At the moment we here are only too ready to ascribe all sorts of good qualities to the Germans, courage, tenacity, discipline, thoroughness, method, and what you will; but perhaps not the milk of human kindness or mercy.  As we were all professional soldiers or volunteers, it all seemed rather pointless, and I think he missed a great opportunity of saying something to assist the men.  If we were not here to kill the Boche as the country’s enemies we ought to be at home in league with the conscientious objectors and not wearing the King’s uniform.  He seemed to think that the aim and object of the National Mission at home was to get the people to go to church.


After having seen something of the way the Boche treat our wounded I suffer from no illusions. At the moment it is no use asking me to love them.


You ask me my opinion of chaplains out here. My experience is very limited.  We never saw one at all the whole time we were in action.  As in every profession, it all depends on the character of the man himself, and mostly they seem to be rotters.  But there are some great exceptions.  Anyone can celebrate the Holy Communion or mass, or bury the dead, after the formula.  That cuts no ice with the men.  I can bury those who died just as effectively.  Mostly the poor chaps lay where they fell, until we moved forward a bit and fatigue parties could bury them.  They had no chaplain, and I somehow feel that they would not care much how they were buried.  If they had done their job, well and good.  If not no service could help them.  It is far more important to cheer the fellows up and help them do their job while they are alive.  And hot air about loving your enemies does not help much at the moment.  I believe a lot could be done among the men while they are in the line or are lying wounded or dying.  But it requires some courage to go up forward voluntarily.  Few seem to do it.  If a padre is a man of personality he gets a job in the higher ranks and becomes a staff officer and sits in an office.  That is not my idea of a padre’s job out here.  As everywhere the white man (if I may use the term) is in a great minority.  It does the Church no good for parsons to be seen in back area wearing crowns and stars and the black gorget patches of the staff, or when in uniform running a canteen at the Base.  The Expeditionary Force Canteen people can do that or the A.S.C.


Monday Morning, July 31, 1916.


Another boiling hot day. We are still out of the firing line.  We came out three days ago after 32 days and nights of continual firing.  Altogether we fired about 22,000 rounds, which is not so bad for four guns.  We expect to go back any minute.  It is peaceful where we are, but even here the Boche put over an occasional round or two.


I was up at 4.30, a.m., this morning and took the early exercise for the horses. They are not looking at all fit after the ammunition carrying they have had to do.


We were most fortunate in the attack. We only had two casualties wounded.


On Saturday night we had a men’s concert. It was not bad, but rather lengthy.  The Sergeants’ mess cook was very funny and had to appear to encores five times.  We had dinner afterwards at 10, p.m.


We sleep in tents, which we have stolen. We call it “winning” them.  Our mess is made of empty ammunition boxes and a great green tarpaulin.  It is alright so long as it keeps fine.


H.E. WITTY July 16

H.E. WITTY July 16


  1. Section


1st July 1916.  Saturday.  Out at 4.30 a.m. completing last night’s work.  Returned to Bty 7.0 a.m. – put out line to Gun position on S. Loop.  On battery telephone – fired 20 Rds.  Indifferent shooting.  Communication good – not a single break.  No mail.  A lovely ideal summer day.  Smash up of Lt. Reid’s Plane (sister to the one which landed in Lille) – the aviator was recently awarded the M.C. and appeared in Daily Mirror.


2nd July 1916.  Sunday.  Kelly’s sentence read out.  12 months hard labour – Aeroplane takes fire & is destroyed early this a.m.  A lovely day.  On duty 1 a.m. to 5 a.m. and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.  On gun line and CX line also in morning.  Good Mail.  Letters R., Kathie, Alice and Scott.  Ans.  Sent to base censor.  Good news of British successes down South.  Guards took 1st & second line trenches at Cross Roads estaminet early hours this a.m.


3rd July 1916.  Monday.  Turned out for parade 6 a.m.  On O.P. line in morning testing it and inserting new wire when necessary.  Returned at noon.  Excellent views of the Hun Plane which was flying dangerously low – on battery 2 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. standing by to open fire shd 86 be retaliated upon.  No firing.  Extremely fine day – gloriously warm.  Letter from Humberstone.  ANS.  On telephone 9 P.M. to 1 A.M.


4th July 1916.  Tuesday.  Came off telephone 1 a.m. and went on again from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.  Very heavy thunderstorm in afternoon.  “Canal” overflowed and camp field flooded.  Good news from South.  Little doing.  NO MAIL. Reading and “calculating”.


5th July 1916.  Wednesday.  On CX line in the morning with Candlin.  Found “Shorting” near the Mill.  Very dull day.  Nothing doing in afternoon.  Good mail.  Letters R., Hilda, Home with papers home and Scott.  ANS.  Return of Knight from Hazebrouck.  Finished “Out of the night.” (Mrs. B. Reynolds).


6th July 1916.  Thursday.  Cold and dull.  Nothing doing.  On telephone 5 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. No Mail.  Major’s inquiry into rations – vast improvement.  New potatoes yesterday & today.  Gill returns from O.P.


7th July 1916.  Friday.  Out on O.P. line from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m.  Broken badly at Steentje Mill, ***Junction and Paliser Farm.  Got wet through being out in heavy rain.  Changed on return to camp.  Kit inspection in the afternoon by the Major.  Good Mail.  Letters Ma, Douglas & Gilbert.  Pcl from home.  Ans.  Nothing doing in battery.


8th July 1916.  Saturday.  On telephone 1 a.m. to5 a.m. and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.  Dull in morning developing into lovely warm weather.  Calley & Shippen, Gill & Bushy (Sidecar) on O.P. line.  Meeting with Crowther 86 Siege (one of N.T. adherents) last night.


9th July 1916.  Sunday.  Parade 6 a.m.  Gas bag inspection.  What does this portend?  Left Bty with Gill at 7.15 a.m. for Frascati.  Line badly in need of repair especially thro’ shell fire.  Arrived at F. line “DIS” since our arrival at Canal Bank.  Returned on line and found it “cut” between Les Trois Tours and Siege Junction.  Afterwards line O.K.  Met 35 (S) and (99) Siege.   Lovely day.  Rain of shells into YPRES.  Shrapnel bullet (spent) on the foot – painful.  Returned 8.30 p.m.  About 18 miles across country.  On duty 9 p.m. to 1 a.m.  10.15 p.m. Hun plane drops 3 bombs in neighbourhood one just outside camp.  Letter from Doris.  Ans.  Hun planes very active.


10th July 1916.  Monday.  Another fine day.  On telephone 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.  Very little doing.  Huns very active in the air again.  Repaired my “bed”.  Letter from R.  Ans.  Pop heavily shelled & bombed at 11 p.m. last night.


11th July 1916.  Tuesday.  Pop again bombed & shelled today.  On CA 3 line to Trois Tours.  Returned 3.0 p.m.  Very fine – on battery line at night.  NO MAIL.


12th July 1916.  Wednesday.  Out on O.P. line changing direction owing to ‘danger zone’ round Siege Junc. Returned 3 p.m.  Lovely day – POP shelled every day.  Letter Hilda.  Paper Scott.  Ans.  On telephone during the day.  5 a.m.-9a.m. 5 p.m. – 9 p.m.  Pop still shelled.  Letters Hilda.  Paper Scott.  Ans.


13th July 1916.  Thursday. On telephone 5 Collecting wire in the morning with new reel (waist).  On bty all the afternoon.  Good post.  Letters R. Home, Gladys (photo) and books from Crummings.  Ans.  Percy active.  Fired 5 Rounds in retaliation.  Wet all day.


14th July 1916.  Friday.  On telephone 1 a.m. to 5 a.m.  Nothing doing during the day except gun standing by for PERCY.  On duty 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. On HD. QR line after tea.  Received photos & scissors from home – two letters from Scott and Douglas.  ANS.


15th July 1916.  Saturday.  On battery during the morning and telephone from 9 p.m. to 1 a.m.  Lovely day.  Nothing doing.  Sad accident near battery in a bombing school of the “Leicesters” – Officer killed and 6 men seriously wounded by a premature bomb.  Hum aeroplanes pretty active.  POP deserted after bombardment.  Departure of Naval Siege Gun (9.2) to Nieuport.  Letters Harry Woodthorpe, J.B. (Ma).  ANS.  Went up to Frascati to show Mr. O’Kell the way.  Shelled near 10 Bdge had to leave car which was hit with splinters & shelter.  6” MK VII.  Narrow escape.  On return same place shelled with 5.9s – good shooting but little damage done.


16th July 1916.  Sunday.  On telephone 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. –nothing doing.  Still standing by.  Much rain.  Letter from Bee and pcl from R.  Ans letter and acknowledged pcl.


17th July 1916.  Monday.  Very little doing – still standing by.  Very hot – spent greater part of day over-hauling cable.  On battery 5 p.m. to 9 p.m.  Letters R. and Dorothy.  Ans.


18th July 1916. Tuesday.  Overhauling wire in the morning.  On telephone 5 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. to 9 p.m.  Nothing doing in afternoon except a bathe.  Pc from Douglas who had met C.  Lougheed in hospital.  Nice fine day.


19th July 1916.  Wednesday.  Overhauling cable and on South loop line.  Very fine day.  Still standing by.  Letter from Hilda & papers from home.  Ans.  On battery 1 – 6 p.m.


20th July 1916.  Thursday.  On telephone 1 a.m. to 5 a.m. and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.  Lovely day.  Still standing by – enemy aircraft very busy – attempt to bomb balloons in vicinity.  NO MAIL.  Knight on CG1A line – Useless Gun comes in at 10 p.m.


21st July 1916.  Friday.  On O.P. line.  Walked along line to REIGERSBERG – mended 3 breaks.  Line then O.K. returned to camp 3 p.m.  Letters R., home, Kathie and Peg.  ANS.  Another lovely day.  Much air activity – 4 planes over camp this morning.


22nd July 1916.  Saturday.  On telephone 1 am to 5 am last night 9 p.m. to 1 a.m.  Nothing doing today at all – spent a little time overhauling cable.  Letter from Mrs. Philippson.  Latest promotion Harrington Cpl.  Knights and Harper “passed over”.  On O.P. tomorrow.


23rd July 1916.  Sunday.  At Frascati – left here 3.30 a.m.  Pretty quiet day.  Canal Bank strafed about midnight.  Mallins & Tribe.  Col. Buzzard’s visit.  Letter Humberstone.  ANS.  Another lovely day. A.A. DRUNK.


24th July 1916.  Monday.  Returned to camp 6.15 a.m.  On South Loop line in the morning – very warm but rather dull.  Letters Frank, R., Alice, Mr. Carter, F.A.W. (PC), Gilbert, Bottrill.  ANS.


25th July 1916.  Tuesday.  Laid 1 mile of G 12 up the Brook for new CX line.  Finished at NOON.  Old CX broken – went out at 1.30 p.m. found break near VLAM. (86 shelled) returned in sidecar.  Overhauling cable at night.  NO MAIL.  53 Returns from South.


26th July 1916.  Wednesday.  Put in another 1000 yds to the new CX line finishing up beyond new gun position.  Overhauling cable in the afternoon.  Fine weather still continues.  Letters Mother (also papers) and N.T.  ANS.  Went up to CA5 (Machine Gun Emplacement) last night with Mallins – returned 10 p.m.  Very quiet.


27th July 1916.  Thursday.  Still on new CX line.  Almost completed.  Another fine day.  Letters Scott and pc from Mag.  Wrote Hilda, Scott, Harry and Gilbert today.  Very little doing.


28th July 1916.  Friday.  On telephone 1 a.m. to 5 a.m. and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.  Had a bon tea as we celebrated Gill’s gift of 28/- from the workmen.  Letters Ma and R.  ANS.  Very hot – had a nice bath.  Finished new CX line.



29th July 1916.  Saturday.  Overhauling cable in the morning.  Glorious weather.  Arrival of A.A.s letter from Miss G. Winter.  Still standing by.  NO MAIL.  On telephone 9 p.m. to 1 a.m.  Nothing doing at all.  Very monotonous.  Wrote Bee and Mag.  Premature with 22 (S) Gun.


30th July 1916.  Sunday.  on duty 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. – very hot day.  Very little doing.  Lovely service in the evening in a field.  Letter and photo from R.  Pc Mrs. Sampson.  ANS.


31st July 1916.  Monday.  On CG1A line at VLAM in the morning.  Lovely weather continues.  Much bed-building in afternoon.  NO MAIL.  Commission to purchase pass for Major tomorrow.



A.G. Richardson’s Diary July 1916

A.G. Richardson’s Diary July 1916


Saturday 1st July 1916:           Rose at 8 am.  Terrible artillery bombardment.  Lovely day – great aerial activity.  Bombardment ceases 7.30.  Infantry action later.  Plenty of wounded & prisoners.

Sunday 2nd July 1916:             Saw tons of prisoners.  Got a few souvenirs.  Good deal of wounded, though only slightly, come down.  Terrific bombardment at night.


Monday 3rd July 1916:                        Terrific artillery work – plenty of amm going up.  Hard at it all day.  Quieter towards night.

Tuesday 4th July 1916:            Quiet day.  Infantry actions.  Stuck at Thiepval Wood.  49th win still to their glorious name.




Wednesday 5th July 1916:       Wet day – nothing much doing.  Inside all day.  Up till 12 midnight.

Thursday 6th July 1916:           Slight rain.  Went to WARLOY for some beer.  Got 4 helmets, sniper’s telescopic sights, belts daggers, all sorts of souvenirs at night.


Friday 7th July 1916:               Artillery again at it.  Tremendous din.  Quieter towards noon.  Went near Thiepval at night & saw the front line.

Saturday 8th July 1916:           Heavy artillery placed near us – 15” Naval guns.  Much quieter than usual.


Sunday 9th July 1916:             “T” Sect in reserve to 248 Bde in readiness to “go over” following the cavalry.  Not required.

Monday 10th July 1916:          Great artillery work towards night.  Jack Currie killed & Joe Webster wounded.


Tuesday 11th July 1916:          Rose at 7 am.  Fine day – aeroplanes in dozens.  Busy until 11.30 pm.

Wednesday 12th July 1916:     Watched our heavies firing near Thiepval.  Englebelmer heavily shelled by the Bosches with “Universal”.


Thursday 13th July 1916:         Rose at 7.30 am.  Filled up with amm.  684 A. & 228.                                              A.X.  Busy until midnight.  Great heavy artillery work                                             near Thiepval Wood.

Friday 14th July 1916:             Set off with Sergt Hutson on bikes at 8 am & arrived AMIENS 10.45.  Lovely day.  “FETE Nationale” throughout France.  Grand displays in Amiens.  Crowds & crowds of people.  Came back in R.N.A.S. car.  Back at 8.30 pm.


Saturday 15th July 1916:         Rose at 8 am.  Fine day.  Nothing much doing.  Pozieres captured by us!!  (Official).

Sunday 16th July 1916:           Great artillery work.  Beaucoup aeroplanes around scouting.

The diary has no further location headings until1 September.

Monday 17th July 1916:          10.45 am                                 A                     AX

A/248              157

12.15 pm         B/248              114

5.10               A/247              413                  10

Tuesday 18th July 1916:          10 am              A/248                                      19

11 am              C/155 (K)                                76

9.50 pm           B/248                                      76

Wednesday 19th July 1916:     6 pm                B/245              608                  —

Thursday 20th July 1916:         7.30 am           A/248              228                  76

7.20 am           C/248              228                  76

7.30 am           A/245              228                  76

Friday 21st July 1916:             No entry.

Saturday 22nd July 1916:         1.15 pm.          B/245              304

Sunday 23rd July 1916:           9.15 am           B/245              380                  76

Monday 24th July 1916:          No entry.

Tuesday 25th July 1916:          10 am              B/245              380                  76

3.20 pm           C/246              142

Wednesday 26th July 1916:     No entry.

Thursday 27th July 1916:         No entry.

Friday 28th July 1916:             No entry.

Saturday 29th July 1916:         No entry.

Sunday 30th July 1916:           8.30 am           A/247              456                  152

Monday 31st July 1916:          No entry.

F. Hammond letter 29 July 1916

29 July 1916

Dear F & M

Just a line to say I am OK.  I suppose you received my letter saying that we were enjoying a rest after having a rather rough time of it.  As you will no doubt have read about the doings of the S. Africans & the Highlanders in the papers.  There was a very good article about us in the Times of July 25th We are enjoying a good time in rest in a town with plenty of life not far from where we were last Septr.  We spend most of our spare time playing solo.  The weather is very nice just now.  I received a letter from Gladys Grimshaw today but have not received a parcel she has sent owing to the change of my address I sometimes get letters weeks old.  Hope Gladys does well in her exam.  I suppose it was rather a pathetic scene to see her leaving her old colleagues.  Well it is Saty today & we all went & had a hot bath this forenoon & change so feel in the pink now.

Well there’s a concert on here tonight & the estaminets are just opening so you can see we are not downhearted yet.  Hope you are all well.  I got a fellow to send that Field Post Card who was going out of the trenches.  I suppose you wondered why I hadn’t written it.

Well we are all merry & bright again hoping you are the same.

So Bye Bye for present

Bungy de Grabit

A.A. Laporte Payne letter to Muriel 28 Jul 1916.

Letter to Muriel 28 Jul 1916.




July 28th 1916


My dear Muriel,


At last I have a few minutes to write. We have just left the line after 34 days and nights continuous firing for a rest (?) of 48 hours!  The men are quite tired out and badly need a rest and other necessary things as baths etc, as far as we can get them.


What a thoughtful person you are. Cigarettes wrapped up in waterproof paper to prevent them arriving damp as parcels sometimes do in these delightful parts.  Thank you so very much for your letters and parcels of chocolate, cigarettes, and socks.  You are much kinder than you know.


You don’t seem to have had two letters I have despatched via the Field Post Office. In one I enclosed a German Field Post Card.


The mud, I am glad to say, has disappeared at last and now we are suffering from the dust – no rest for the wicked!


I am so sorry to hear about Mrs. Griffin. I do hope she will be better soon.  It is most trying for the Colonel.


You are, I hope, enjoying your country holiday as much as we are ours. I am at present sitting on the hay for the horses but unfortunately we are not quite outside the range of the guns.


They have just put 2 or 3 nasty black woolly ones over here, but did no damage.


I am sorry you were not able to accept your invitation to Ganarew. Perhaps they may be more likely next time!


It is not nice to discover dead things in one’s abode is it? Even dead birds in a summer house are most trying.  In our Boche dug-out we have been troubled by peculiar scents so we determined to clear that part which was filled with debris from the bombing attack which was supposed to have cleared the place of Huns.  Underneath we discovered two of these gentry – in – well – not a nice condition – so now the place smalls of lime and other disinfectants.


I have not read ‘Ordeal by Battle’.  Is it good?  Ain’t you sick of war news, war stories, war books?  I am – at least of the war – but we still read our week old papers from end to end.


We are having beautiful weather now – just right for the sea-side or Henley or some other such place.  I suppose you are enjoying the same sort of weather.  We dream in our delicious moments of the sea side and nothing to do for months.


I can’t give you any news that the papers have not got. It is getting much too dangerous to say anything at all about events out here now.  They seem to let the newspaper correspondents say a lot and some of it is frightfully exaggerated.  I am not at all looking forward to another winter out here.


In the old days they used to do things properly and go ‘in hibernas’ – into winter quarters and give up fighting which was sensible but we have fallen into barbarous habits. We shall soon be quite prehistoric.


I am so sorry for the French people. Every time we advance it means levelling their villages to the ground.  Artillery bombardments now-a-days is terrific.  Imagine miles of countryside literally covered with shell holes turning the whole place brown and miles and miles of communication and fire trenches all mixed up, owing to the advance.  All the trees and other living things destroyed.  It will be a very long time before they will be able to live as before on the ground we fight over.  In la Boiselle you can’t find the roads, the houses simply don’t exist, and the church is a mound of white rubble.


July 29


I was unable to finish my letter last night, so hope to send it off today. It is a beautiful but very hot day again.  We got up very late I am sorry to say as we sat up very late last night after a big dinner of soup, tinned fish, lobsters, sausage, peaches etc.  English beers for the first time for months too.  We return to our duties tomorrow.  We had an inspection of the horses this morning.  They are looking thin – poor things they have been having a bad time of it lately – so much carrying ammunition.  Later we had some revolver practice.  I was badly off form.  I started well but fell off sadly – my usual procedure at most things I am afraid.


I hope you are all keeping fit & well and enjoying yourselves.


With best wishes (Great idea!)


Yours very sincerely




Alf Smith postcard 26 July 1916



On Active Service                                                       Field Post Office 1* 26 JY 16


A. Smith Esq., 24 Palmerston Rd. Bowes Park. London N. England


Dear Father,

Many thanks for parcel just received.  You can imagine how welcome it was when I tell you there is no chance of buying anything here.  I could see that you packed it well, but it was all smashed to atoms; everything was there except the scissors & the biscuits were scattered about so I made short work of the remainder.  I cannot write a letter because I can’t get an envelope but will do so at first opportunity.

Glad to say I am quite well . Alf

8th Division Artillery Operation Order No. 16.


SECRET                                                                                                         Copy No


8th Division Artillery Operation Order No. 16.

Reference Map FRANCE Sheet 36A and 36B 1/40000


  1. The 8th Divisional Artillery is attached to the XI Corps from the 1st Corps.
  2. The C.R.A. 8th Division will proceed to H.Q. 61st Divisional Artillery, LA GORGUE at 9 a.m. 14th instant.

Brigade Commanders, Battery Commanders and 1 Subaltern per Battery will         proceed to the same H.Q. at 10.30 a.m.

  1. Remainder of 8th Divisional Artillery will proceed by route march to FOSSE (R.21.central) arriving at that place at 12 noon.
  2. The Divisional Ammunition Column, less the S.A.A. Section and Grenade Section, will accompany the Divisional Artillery.
  3. Guns now with the I.O.M. will be left behind.
  4. Supply wagons will march full with Units.
  5. Order of March.         45th Brigade R.F.A.

5th Brigade R.H.A.

33rd Brigade R.F.A.

Divl .Ammn. Column.

The O.C. 45th Brigade will fix the starting point.

  1. Time of Starting. Head of the Column to move off at 7.30 a.m.
  2. Route.       CHOCQUES – HINGES – Cross roads, Q.28.d. – Cross roads Q.30.b. – FOSSE (R.21.central).
  3. Acknowledge.



C.R. Gover Major R.A.

Brigade-Major 8th Division Artillery.

Issued at


Copies to:-

5th Brigade R.H.A.

33rd Brigade R.F.A.

45th Brigade R.F.A.

Divl. Ammn. Colm.

War Diary.








Alf Smith Postcard 23 July 1916




Field Post Office 13. 23 JY 16.

To  T. Smith Esq., 24 Palmerston Rd BowesPark. LondonN. England



I am quite well

Letter follows at first opportunity

I have received no letter from you lately.


Signature only. A.A. Smith


Date July 21st 16

14th Infantry Brigade 22 JUL 1916

Reserve Army G.A. 6/1/3

X Corps G.405


Stamped Headquarters 14th Infantry Brigade 22 JUL 1916


The following remarks on methods of Signal communications are the result of consultations with Signal Officers who have taken part in the recent attacks.


  1. Various methods of communication have been used, which may be classified as
      1. Communication by wire.
      2. Pigeons.
      3. Visual.
      4. Wireless.
      5. Earth currents.
  1. There is a complete consensus of opinion that every effort should be made to obtain communication by wire as far forward as Battalions, and this has generally been successful. In front of Battalions, runners are generally considered the most satisfactory means, except when the country happens to be suitable for visual. Pigeons have given excellent results in some cases, but the numbers available are not sufficient for their employment with every Battalion, much less with every company. Wireless has been little used, as the wires have been generally available.       Apparatus for earth currents is not yet available except in a few isolated places.

All Signal Officers are agreed that it is a mistake to try for more than two methods in one unit, (of which wire should be one) owing to the difficulties caused by overloading the available personnel both physically and mentally, and I recommend that this should be considered as a principle for adoption.


  1. COMMUNICATION BY WIRE. In order to meet the inevitable changes of location of units the wiring of an area should be laid out as far as possible on the ‘chess board’ system – main routes parallel to the front being constructed to serve Corps Headquarters, Divisional Headquarters, Artillery Groups, Heavy Batteries, Brigade Headquarters, Artillery observing stations if in rear of the trenches etc. The number of these routes and the offices on each, must depend on local circumstances. Plenty of spare wires are necessary, and all telephone circuits should be metallic.       These communications should be laid out under Corps supervision and Armies should ensure that the systems of neighbouring Corps meet satisfactorily.

Routes perpendicular to the front should be similarly laid out.

These routes should be overhead where the area is reasonably safe from shelling, and buried at least 6 feet deep in shelled areas. A carefully arranged system of labelling and test points is required, and test dug-outs on a buried system must be proof against all but a direct hit by 11” shell.

No company telephones should be allowed in trenches, as they are a fruitful source of information to the enemy. A route should be pushed forward from each Battalion Headquarters to a point selected as collecting station, and messages sent to this by runner.  Electric bells from companies to this point for S.O.S.  The Brigade Signal Officer should be in charge of all cables in the trenches, assisted by a permanent party of 1 officer and 10 men detailed from the Brigade.

The number of circuits in the routes should be sufficient to allow of Artillery requirements being met, and the Artillery system should be maintained by Signals, arrangements being made as regards provision of linemen and working parties by the Artillery, who would work under the Signal Officer attached to Artillery in each unit.

When an attack is being prepared these forward routes should be pushed on up to the front trenches, and got ready for extensions by tunnelling forward to the enemy’s lines. Working parties should be detailed to carry forward this route – still 6 ft deep – to a dug-out in the enemy’s front line.

As an attack goes forward cables should be laid on the surface in triplicate from this point, using single wire circuits only, the cables diverging on leaving the dug-out, and converging again at another selected dug-out perhaps half a mile on, where a test office and lineman station should be established. The route taken being that selected for the advance of battalion headquarters.  Every advantage will of course be taken of existing trenches.

When the move of Brigade headquarters is determined on, one of these routes should be selected for improvement; the circuits added to and made metallic, and as far as possible buried 6 feet deep. These ‘perpendicular’ routes should be joined by others parallel to the front as it moves forward, thus maintaining the chess board system.

When time and labour do not admit of a properly laid route in 6 feet trenches filled in, it is considered that the best results are obtained from cables laid in open trenches, preferably trenches not used for walking in. Even an eighteen inch trench gives considerable protection, but it is not worth incurring the difficulties in fault finding caused by burying unless a 6 feet trench can be made.


  1. COMMUNICATION BY PIGEON. The results of this method have been very variable; in some cases excellent times have been made by the birds even through a heavy barrage, in others no messages have been sent, in a few the pigeons have been very slow in coming in. I think when the results have been bad they have been due to faulty training of the pigeoneers, and lack of appreciation of their value by the Officers to whom the pigeons have been attached.

I recommend that if visual is unsuitable, pigeons should be considered as the alternative method to cable. In such cases it will be necessary to arrange for enough trained men and birds to send up to eight birds with each attacking battalion, which is a considerable increase on present establishments.

If visual is adopted as the alternative method, the existing pigeon establishment of 2 men per brigade might well be allotted to liaison officers, apart from the Signal Service. I am convinced that Signal Officers cannot be expected to look after more than two means of communication.


  1. COMMUNICATION BY VISUAL. If there is a suitable ridge in rear of our lines, on which receiving stations can be located, this method should be very satisfactory. Of course fog or heavy storm will render it temporarily useless.

The apparatus taken forward must be of the simplest and most portable description otherwise it will be thrown away. Collapsible shutters and discs are generally preferred.

A good deal of previous practice is necessary to give the regimental signallers – who are usually without much experience – confidence in sending back their messages four times over to a receiving station that cannot acknowledge. And receiving stations must be specially trained to pick up signals over the area they are watching.

Daylight lamps are generally considered too cumbrous to push ahead of battalion headquarters.

Visual to contact aeroplanes has been much practiced, but I cannot find out that the results have been commensurate with the time expended.


  1. COMMUNICATION BY TRENCH WIRELESS.   The sets are fragile and heavy to carry, and they and their personnel cannot be replaced. They should not therefore be placed in front of Brigade Headquarters, where they would be useful as an alternative to cable if a 6 feet buried route cannot be obtained. A set would be usefully placed in a post which is intended to hold out even if surrounded.

Commanders are naturally averse from using wireless owing to the difficulty of using code or cipher, which greatly limits its practical usefulness. I am afraid there is no way out of this, as the messages can be tapped some way back in the enemy’s lines, where he has undisturbed arrangements.  Really urgent messages however will probably be worth sending in clear even at the expense of his probably reading them.


  1. EARTH CURRENTS. A valve amplifier (IT) can read earth currents from a suitable instrument to a range of about 2000 yards. Little of this apparatus is however available at present, and certain undoubted disabilities require further experiment before it can be worked into any scheme of attack.


  1. GENERAL REMARKS. I have noticed the following difficulties which appear to be preventable:-


      1. Bad signal work caused by lack of accommodation in dug-outs. Operators work long hours, and the accuracy and speed of their work necessarily falls off if their position is cramped and the atmosphere bad.
      2. Lack of consideration of existing signal communications in siting headquarters of newly introduced formations, or in moving existing ones. If the ‘chess board’ system is in thorough working order this difficulty should be reduced to a minimum. Otherwise much expenditure of material is involved, and the system suffers by the exhaustion of the signal units in running new lines, and failing thereby to give sufficient attention to maintenance.
      3. Lack of supervision by the higher unit in transfers of area between lower units. This is always a difficult operation as regards signals, and can only be brought off successfully by close supervision on the part of the higher unit.

18 Da



APPROXIMATE allotment of ammunition for various tasks.


N.B. This table is worked out for one gun of a wire cutting battery.


DAY            TASK                                              18-prs         4.5”             T.M.

Hows             2”   240 mm



“U” day     Wire cutting 18-prs at rate                200

Of 200 rounds per gun.


U/V Night   Approaches & Communications

at night, about 2 Batts: per

Group, to consist of about               100              50

12 salvoes per hour.

N.B. Night from 8 PM to 5 AM.


18-prs preventing repair of wire.        20


TOTAL          320           50


Wire cutting.                                    200                                  100


O.Ps, Machine Gun

emplacements,                                                  100

Communication trenches.

“V” Day

&          Concentration of fire,

V/W Night   Right Group                                    10                10


Approaches & communications

at night.                                            100               50


Gas barrage if required.                      50              30


Preventing repair of wire

and trenches.                                      20


TOTAL                380             190               100





DAY           TASK                                              18-prs         4.5”                T.M.

Hows             2”   240 mm



Wire cutting.                                   200                                  100


O.Ps, Machine Guns

Communication trenches.                                100                              30

“W” Day

&          Concentration of fire,

W/X Night   Left Group                                         10                10


Approaches & communications

at night.                                            100               50


Preventing repair of wire

and trenches.                                       30                10


Gas barrage if not fired on

Previous night.


TOTAL                340             170               100           30




Wire cutting.                                     200                                  40


O.Ps, Machine guns,

Trenches, etc.                                                    100                 40           30

“X” Day

&          Concentration of fire,

X/Y Night   one battery per Group                        10                10


Approaches & communications

at night.                                             100               50


Preventing repair of wire

and trenches.                                       30                10


Gas barrage if not fired on

Previous night.


TOTAL                340             170               80           30




DAY           TASK                                              18-prs        4.5”                T.M.

Hows            2”   240 mm


Wire cutting.                                     200                                30


O.Ps, Machine Guns

trenches etc.                                                    100               30           30

“Y” Day

&          Concentration of fire,

Y/Z Night   Centre Group                                    10                10


Approaches & communications

at night.                                            100               50


Preventing repair of wire

and trenches.                                       40                20              30



TOTAL                350             180               90           30




“Z” Day       65 minute bombardment

up to             (at about 3 rounds per

assault           gun per minute (18-pr))                  200             125               30          10


TOTAL                200             125                30           10



TOTALS per Gun previous to Assault.



18-prs         4.5”                T.M.

Hows                2”   240 mm



“U” Day &U /V Night                                          320                 50

“V” Day & V/W Night                                         380                190            100

”W” Day & W/X Night                                        340                170            100         30

”X” Day & X/Y Night                                          340                170              80         30

”Y” Day & Y/Z Night                                          350                180              90         30

”Z” up to assault                                                  200              125              30         10


TOTAL               1930                 885           400       100


Rough estimate of expenditure from 0.00 to 2.30 and remainder of “Z” day and night.


During assault at rate of approximately

3 rounds per gun per minute 18-pr and                 500                  250

2 rounds per gun in minute for 4.5”



For barrages, special undertakings etc.                 500                 250


TOTAL                                                                 1000               500

Total up to 0.00 time.                                            2000             1000             430      100


GRAND TOTAL                                                 3000              1500            430      100



(8) The above alterations will affect Appendix “C” slightly, Group Commanders should consequently consider these slight alterations:-

“V”. Concentration of Right Group should now be considered under “X” day expenditure, whereas the expenditure allowed for concentration on “X” day may now be cancelled.


An additional expenditure of 15 rounds of 18-pr and 10 rounds of 4.5” per gun should be added to “W”, “X” and “Y” days for intense bombardment in support of discharge of gas.