THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1919

 

THE INTER-WAR PERIOD

1919

 

On the 23rd March 1919, Benito Mussolini formed the National Fascist Party and galvanised the support of many unemployed war veterans. He organised them into armed squads known as Black Shirts, who terrorised their political opponents. Mussolini had fought in the Italian army and in 1917 had been badly wounded and discharged. Upon recovering he resumed his position of editor-in-chief of his new paper Il Popolo d’Italia.

 

In July 1919, after having fought in the Great War, Adolf Hitler was still in the German Military as an acting intelligence officer. He was sent to report on an emerging right wing group, the German Workers Party (known as the DAP and later renamed the Nazi Party). Hitler was immensely unhappy by the German defeat in the Great War, and blamed the Jews and socialists, who he believed had surrendered the nation. Finding he agreed with the Anti-Semitic, Nationalist beliefs he joined the party in September 1919. At the DAP, Hitler met Dietrich Eckart, one of the founder members who became Hitler’s mentor, exchanging ideas with him. To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Hitler designed the party’s banner of a swastika in a white circle on a red background.

 

The Republic of Germany-Austria signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain on the 10th September 1919, with the victorious Allies of the Great War. The peace treaty regulated the borders of Austria by dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They forced Germany-Austria to change its name to Austria. The final condition being they did not continue the union with Germany. The treaty was signed at Saint-Germain near Paris. The United States of America did not ratify the treaty and later made a separate peace treaty with Austria.

 

Bulgaria signed the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine with the Allies on the 27th November 1919. The peace treaty regulated the borders of Bulgaria, ceding territories back to Serbia and Macedonia. The Bulgarian army was reduced to 20,000 men and the Allies ordered Bulgaria to pay war reparations. The treaty was signed At Neuilly-sur-Seine in France.

 

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War Diary of AA Laporte Payne March 1918

War Diary of AA Laporte Payne March 1918

 

EXTRACTED FROM.

 

Brigade Diary, Personal Diary, Operation Orders, Note Books, Memoranda

Correspondence

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March 5 1919

It is dull here now. We are overhauling equipment and handing it in for storage.  All the horses have gone with the exception of a charger for me and the mess cart horse, and a large number of the men.

 

I went into Amiens the other day, and to day I go to Abbeville on duty.

 

The Brigade sign is a dolphin, which the Colonel calls the “flying slug”.

 

Prices of everything seems to be very high. My Captain who has just come back from Paris says that it is expensive there. Amiens, Doullens and Abbeville are bad enough.

 

March 14th 1919

I have just returned from Paris after an enjoyable visit with Prior.  We went out to Saint Cloud.

 

March 23 1919

I leave A/155 today for another unit, which I have not yet ascertained.

 

March 27 1919.

Cologne.

Just arrived.

 

March 28 1919.

HOTEL BELGISCHER HOF.

COLN.

 

This the first Boche town I have been in is the place where I detrained. We left our village of Soues near Hangest, half way between Abbeville and Amiens, a party of two captains, three (3) subalterns, a large number of men, and myself in a lorry as far as Amiens.  It was a bitterly cold day.  There we entrained in a long train made up of German cattle trucks, which have been handed over since the Armistice.  Seven Officers were in my truck.  The beastly thing had great sliding doors, but we managed to scrounge a leaky stove without a top, and there was no trouble in finding plenty of wood and coal.  But the smoke was a foul nuisance.  Whenever we opened the sliding doors to let the smoke out we were frozen in the draught, if we closed them we were suffocated with the smoke.  I was very glad I had my camp bed, so I managed to make myself fairly comfortable.  We were in this train two days.  I was O.C. train, and I was very lucky that I did not lose any men on the way up.

 

We travelled through the devastated areas, which was most interesting. I realised more than ever the wretched Hun’s damage to France.  For one whole day we saw nothing else than smashed bridges, towns and villages.  We passed through Villers Bretonneux, Peronne, Cambrai, Mons, Lutte, Charleroi, Namur, Liège to Cologne, arriving about 8 a.m.  We then came to this hotel and had baths, shave and a good meal.

 

The town is full of troops, and the Boche must be making a great deal out of us. But things are not very expensive as yet.  The prices are high, but we get 52 marks to the pound.  I am paying seven marks a night for quite a good bedroom, and that is only about three shillings in English money.

 

There are some god Officers’ Clubs here but otherwise nowhere much to go to. The shops are excellent.  We hear about the starving Hun, but they all seem to be fat and well living here.  It is curious how many of them speak English.  So far I not come across a man who did not understand what I said, even in the small shops, and all the porters and waiters do.

 

Several of the theatres and concert halls have been taken over by English concert parties, and I went to one last night. The orchestra was composed of English soldiers with a few German cello players.  I am sure they think us utterly mad.  We do not behave like Boche Officers, and we are treating them much too well.  It is an experience I would not have missed for anything.

 

Captain Prior and I with one or two others go to Duren this afternoon.  At present it is snowing hard, which is uncomfortable when travelling.

 

APOLLO-THEATRE. COLOGNE.

Programme commencing at 6 p.m.

The Woman’s Theatre Company, under the personal direction of Miss Inez Bensusan.

 

Songs and Comedy Songs.

Two Sketches entitled, “Mrs. Haslemere’s Hoard” “A Bit of Blighty.”

 

DEtails of trip 30 March 1927

SPECIAL PARTY in CONNECTION with the UNVEILING of the

20th DIVISIONAL MEMORIAL at LANGEMARCK.

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ITINERARY.

 

(Subject to prevailing conditions, accommodation being obtainable, and the necessary passports and permits being granted).

 

The train and steamer services shown in the itinerary are subject to alteration or cancellation without notice.

 

1927.

Saturday                    Depart London (Victoria)    10.00

June 4th.                    Arrive Ostend.                       15.45

Depart Ostend.                     16.40

Arrive Ypres.                         18.47

 

Sunday                      During the morning drive by auto-car to Langemarck for the

June 5th                     unveiling ceremony, and return to Ypres in time for luncheon.

In the afternoon a drive will be arranged, passing through Vlamertinghe, Poperinghe, Reninhelst, La Clytte, Locre, Mont Kemmel, Messines, Wytschaete, Hollbeke, Hill 60, Zillebeke, Menin Gate, and return to Ypres.

 

Monday                      Depart Ypres.                                    9.18

June 6th.                    Arrive Ostend.                                   11.33.

Depart Ostend.                                 14.30.

Arrive London (Victoria).                 20.27.

 

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INCLUSIVE FARE: – £4.12.6. each passenger (for a party of not less than thirty persons).

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WHAT THE FARE PROVIDES:-

  1. Third class travel tickets from London to Ypres and return.
  2. Meals en route, consisting of luncheon on June 4th and luncheon and dinner on June 6th.
  3. Hotel accommodation at Ypres, consisting of meat breakfast, table d’hote luncheon, table d’hote dinner, bedroom, lights and attendance, commencing with dinner on June 4th and terminating with breakfast on June 6th including taxes.
  4. Transfers from station to hotel and vice versa on arrival and departure in Ypres.
  5. Drives by auto-car (motor chars-a-banc) on Sunday, June 5th as specified in the itinerary.
  6. All fees and gratuities to hotel and railway servants, and to the drivers of the conveyances utilised.
  7. The services of a competent courier throughout the journey. He would supervise the general arrangements, act as interpreter, and relieve the members of all trouble as to detail.  TRAVEL TICKETS. The fare of £4.12.6. covers third class travel tickets. Members can travel in a superior class at the following supplements:First Class throughout.                   …..                  …..                  £1.18.0. each.
  8. Second class railway and first class on steamers                     £1.0.0. each.
  9. HOTEL ACCOMMODATION. Passengers booking at the fare of £4.12.6. will be accommodated at the Hotel Skindles, Ypriana, or similar establishment, at Ypres. Members desirous of staying at a better grade of house, e.g. Hotel Continental, Excelsior, or similar hotel, can do so upon payment of a supplement of….12/6 each.
  10. SUPPLEMENTS.
  11. ————

30 March 1927 letter ref 20 Div memorial

19, St. Mary Abbots Terrace,

Kensington, W. 14.

March 30th 1927.

Telephone – Park 7934.

 

 

Dear Sir,

20th (Light) Division

Battlefield Memorial at Langemarck.

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The unveiling of this memorial will take place on Whit Sunday, June 5th 1927.  Major General Sir W. Douglas Smith, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., has consented to perform the ceremony.

 

The Secretary of the Memorial Committee will be very glad to hear from any members of the Division or the relatives or friends (ladies or gentlemen) of those connected with it who may wish to attend.

 

For the convenience of those travelling to Belgium for this ceremony arrangements have been made (with Messer. Cook & Son Ltd) for a special party at an inclusive charge covering all travelling and hotel expenses. Full particulars, itinerary and application forms are enclosed.  Provisional  reservations of accommodation has already been made, but it is most important for the Secretary to hear as soon as possible from anyone wishing to join this party.  As accommodation will only be definitely reserved by the Agents on receipt of payment, applications should be accompanied by a remittance (cheques payable to Major A.G. Brace and crossed).

 

Should unforeseen circumstances subsequently prevent anyone from making the journey money paid will be refunded, less only a small percentage deducted for Agents expenses.

 

Further particulars and details of the Ceremony will be posted to those who signify their intention of attending.

 

Yours sincerely

ALAN G. BRACE

Messages 30 March 1918

“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.S.O. 1

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G 2                                                      30

 

Cavalry regiment moving from South to North behind Wood C.21.2.9.

 

From: G.O.C.

Place:

Time: 9.15 am.

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressor.

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“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.S.O. 1

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G 3                                                      30

 

Two squadrons British cavalry halted behind wood I.3.b.

 

From: G.O.C.

Place:

Time: 9.30 am.

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressor

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“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.S.O. 1

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G 4                                                      30

 

Infantry or dismounted cavalry advancing in extended order through C.10.d. towards southern end of wood C.10.d. strength about 300.

 

From: G.O.C.

Place:

Time: 9.40 am.

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressor

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“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.S.O. 1

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G 5                                                      30

 

SEELY’s Brigade cavalry is operating strength about 1800 is operating in wood C.21.22. information received from cavalry officer.

 

From: G.O.C. 20

Place:

Time:

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressor

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“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.O.C.

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G 6                                                      30

 

Cavalry officer reports that 4th & 5th Cavalry Brigades in wood BOTS LABBE N CACHY at 10.25 am. AAA Australian Infantry Bde were in CACHY 10.20 am & they had just sent out patrols towards VILLERS BRETONNEAU

 

From: G.S.O. 3

Place:

Time:

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressor

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30 March 1918

20 Div message 30 March 1918

“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.O.C.

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

V.L. 1                                                  30

 

Our front is apparently holding AAA A tendency to withdraw on the right has been rigidly checked.

 

From: 20th Div

Place:

Time: 9 A.M.

G.A. Greig Capt.

Signature of Addressee

 

30 March 1918

 

 

 

Message 30 March 1918

“A” Form

MESSAGES AND SIGNALS

 

To        G.S.O. 1

 

Senders Number                     Day of Month             In reply to Number     AAA

G.1                                                      30/

 

About 2 squadrons of Cavalry seen advancing towards Southern corner of wood in I.3.b. from the direction of MOREUILL & have now disappeared from view into the wood.

 

From: G.O.C. 20

Place:

Time: 9.5

G.A. Grieg Capt.

Signature of Addressee

30 March 1918.