War Diary of AA Laporte Payne 15 December 1917

War Diary of AA Laporte Payne

 

EXTRACTED FROM.

 

Brigade Diary, Personal Diary, Operation Orders, Note Books, Memoranda

Correspondence

—————–

 

 

15th December 1917.

 

R.P. December 15, 1917.

The mail has arrived at last, bringing about forty letters for me and many parcels. It was good to hear news of you all.

 

It is intensely cold here. I have purchased a large goat’s skin fur coat, grey in colour with the fur outside.  The horses do not like it at all.  They think I am a bear from the hills.  But it is very warm.  We get a good deal of sunshine, and it generally thaws in the middle of the day.

 

We are some way north of Verona, and still on the move.  It has been a most interesting trek.  But I shall be glad to settle down now.  I hope we get a decent billet with a mess and a fire place in it.

 

Tomorrow we move again. We shall start early.  All the horses are fit with the exception of one that got some glass in its foot.  I shall have to leave it behind with a driver to look after it until it is well enough to travel.

 

Orders have just come in (midnight). We move late, about 11 a.m.  That will give us time to pack at leisure.

 

December 15, 1917.

B.E.F. Italy.

 

Hurrah. The mail has at last arrived, and I have received between thirty five and forty letters, and some parcels.  I have not counted them all properly yet.  They were all most welcome, letters, chocolate, fruit and magazines.

 

I have not known whether to read letters just as they came to hand, or sort them in order of date. I began the first way, and then, finding it so difficult to grasp some references, turned to the other and slower way.

 

We left Belgium on the 18th of Nov (Sunday), just a month ago.  We pulled out of action that night.  I left England on Nov 14th.

 

We move again tomorrow. I have never had such a trek.  Letters have taken twenty-six days to reach us.

 

We have already partaken of spaghetti, macaroni, polenta, vegetable soup, and powdered cheese; for wine vino rossa, vino nero, chianti, which is very good, and a filthy liqueur well named grappa.

 

I have a wonderful fur coat made of goat skins, hair outside and grey in colour. I look like a teddy bear, and the horses do not like me at all.  But I shall need it in the snows.  Oh! and Oh!

 

The arrival of the mail bags was a great event. There were more than forty.

 

We are in a small mess. We crowd in there because it is warmer.  There are five subalterns and a doctor in it at present, and they are all jumping about, which is rather distracting for one who wants to write.  The Doctor has quarrelled with the Colonel and has asked if he can live with us.  He paid us that compliment, but I don’t know how the Colonel will take it.  he is such a strange man, and so easily takes offence.

 

We are still on the move but we must stop soon as we cannot get much further. The mountains look very fine from below.  I hope my view will not be any closer.  It looks very cold up there.

 

The horses are fit with plenty of work and plenty of oats.

Advertisements

Germany’s Iron Industry and the War. 14 December 1917

GERMANY’S IRON INDUSTRY AND THE WAR.

 

SUMMARY.

 

 

 

COAL AND IRON.

All modern industries are founded on the possession and use of two substances of paramount importance: COAL and IRON.  Without these raw materials, or without either of them, industries peaceful and warlike, would cease.  Interference with or decrease in the production of Coal or Iron acts rapidly and adversely on all industries, hence the Coal and Iron Industries of Germany are worthy of full and detailed study, for Germany is strong in both.

 

Western Germany is pre-eminent among the enemy countries in Iron and Steel production.  Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, and also Belgium, Serbia and Roumania have only limited amounts of Iron ore deposits; and Western Germany has also the great coal deposits necessary to turn the iron ore first into pig-iron and then into Steel.

 

The COAL FIELDS are 1st WESTPHALIA

2nd, the SAAR.

 

The principal IRON ORE District is LORRAINE.

 

4/5ths of her Iron Ore and 4/5ths of her Pig-Iron come from these districts. Their relative locations are shewn on Key MAP (1).

 

IRON MORE VULNERABLE THAN COAL

 

For the purpose of attack by aircraft, the German Iron industry is more vulnerable than Coal, because

(1) The Iron Mines cover a far smaller area and are less numerous than coal mines.

(2) The Iron Field is much nearer than the Coal Fields.

(3) When coal is mined it is rapidly distributed and scattered over a vast area among innumerable factories and plants; whereas Iron ore (when mined) is condensed into a relatively small number of Blast-furnace Works, where it is made into pig-iron, which forms the basis of steel.

(4) Iron Blast-furnace Works are especially sensitive to injury, and are conspicuous landmarks.

 

 

It therefore, is selected as being not only the most vital and material one of all Germany’s War Industries, but also the one which appears to promise the maximum results if attacked by air.

 

Germany is justly proud of her iron industry: it is the land of Blood and Iron, and if we can strike hard and effectively at her Iron production, it would hit her in a vital spot, and would go far to win the War for the Allies.  This is undoubtedly the considered belief and knowledge of all Engineers, Metallurgists, Manufacturers and Scientists, both Allied and Enemy.

 

CAN GERMANY’S IRON PRODUCTION BE EFFECTIVELY ATTACKED?

There are reasons to believe that it can, and these reasons will be summarised in this paper.

If it be asked, could not Germany also attack the Allied iron production with equal effect, the geographical answer is NO: the bulk of Allied iron ore and pig-iron production – not even including the American – is geographically more distant from the enemy lines than is the bulk of German production from the Allied lines.  Fortunately for us, the majority of German pig-iron works are located in the extreme Western end of Germany.

DISTANCES

VERDUN to middle of Lorraine District       … 35 miles.

NANCY     to middle of Lorraine District         …50 miles.

“                  “         Saar               “          … 60     “

“                  “         Siegerland Works     ….170     “

“                  “         Westphalian    “        …. 200     “

 

 

METZ               to NANCY District ……………30 miles

MULHAUSEN   “ LE CREUZOT District …… 160   “

“              “ MONT LUCON     “     …….240   “

OSTEND MIDDLESBORO SHEFFIELD Dist:.260   “

 

 

NANCY is the only one of our large iron districts close to the enemy.  Its relative importance is so small, that fear of enemy reprisals upon it should not be allowed to prevent our attacks on the much more important and vital enemy districts above listed.

 

In 1913 the NANCY FIELD produced under 2,000,000 tons of Iron ore, whereas THE LORRAINE FIELD produced over 46,000,000 tons of Iron ore.

 

This Lorraine Field is of such controlling importance and so near to us, that it will be considered first and in the greatest detail.

 

THE LORRAINE IRON FIELD.

 

Lorraine, Westphalia and the Saar; these districts constitute Germany’s strength for Munitions of War, but of these

LORRAINE sways the entire iron and steel industry of the Enemy, as its mines furnish 80% of her iron ore.  Incidentally its furnaces produce 30% of her pig-iron.  It is the second iron ore district in the World.  Practically all of Germany’s iron mines lie here, amazingly close to our lines, almost within extreme-range naval gun fire.

 

 

The size of this entire Iron Field (including the portion in occupied French Lorraine) is about the size of Greater New York, and it is only half as large as the London Metropolitan Police District.  On a clear day, an observer in a kite balloon could overlook this district from our lines, could see the head frames of its Mines, and the smoke arising from its Iron Works.

 

ENEMY OPINION.

As to the Enemy’s considered opinion of this district, read Appendix E, p. 39 in this Report, translation of Secret Memorial addressed to the Imperial German Chancellor by the Six Association (‘Minette’ in this Memorial means Lorraine Iron ore)

“IF THE OUTPUT OF MINETTE WERE CHECKED THE WAR WOULD BE AS GOOD AS LOST”

 

Again, the Rhenish Westphalian Gazette, Krupp’s subsidised newspaper in the Spring of 1916 says:-

“MINERALS ARE SUCH AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN EVERY BRANCH OF OUR INDUSTRY THAT IN PRESENCE OF THE ENORMOUS EMPLOYMENT OF OUR IRON INDUSTRY IN THIS WAR WE CANNOT THINK WITHOUT TERROR OF WHAT WOULD HAVE HAPPENED TO US HAD NOT THE MINES OF LORRAINE BEEN IN OUR POSSESSION.”

 

Lorraine is the Jiu-Jitsu spot of the German Empire, and it is under our thumb.  It is just asking for rapidly repeated air raids on as big a scale as we are able to provide.

 

EFFECTIVE BOMBING of these Mines and Iron Works should accomplish one or both of the following:-

  • Material Injury to

Power plant, Head-frames or pumping plant of the MINES

Power plant, Blowing Engines, Furnaces.

Hot Blast Stoves or Air pipes of the IRON WORKS.

Engineering reasons for this statement are given in Appendix (A).

Material Injury resulting in flooding of Mines or shut down of Iron Works implies large scale air attacks and heavy bombs and plenty of them.

 

  • Moral effect of air raids on the Workmen engaged in these occupations has been found to be immense, even with small scale raids. If our raids are carried out on a large scale, and repeated by day or night or both for a week or 10 days on end, Engineers and Iron men are confident that the Works would stop running.

 

Everything points to doing this thoroughly and well. Occasional desultory raids have some effect; but for decisive results we should strike hard, day after day, and night after night.  The men would either not work at all, or their work would be enormously hindered.  After a big raid, even one or two aeroplanes the following night with a few very big bombs would wake up the district, alarm the workmen and their families, and greatly decrease the output of ore and pig-iron.

 

Mining Engineers, Iron & Steel men, Metallurgists and Manufacturers know these facts. Every month’s delay means that the Lorraine Mines are pouring out some 3,000,000 tons of ore, and this is within 20 minutes’ flight from our lines.

 

Besides shelling barbed wire in Flanders, or attacking submarines scattered over (or under) the Atlantic, strike at the source – IRON.

 

Attention is directed to the recommendations contained in the following letter from Professor F.W. HARBORD, Consulting Metallurgist to the Ministry of Munitions, one of the first authorities on Iron and Steel in Great Britain.  (This letter was received after the forgoing recommendations were written as to effective Bombing methods.)

 

Englewick,

Englefield Green

Surrey

Decr 16/17.

Dear Mr. Titcomb,

 

I must thank you very much for giving me the opportunity to read your most interesting report on the iron ore Mines & Works in Germany.

 

I think if you require or would like larger Maps it might be possible to obtain some from the War Office altho I am not sure of this, as I don’t know what they have.

 

I quite agree that the Iron & Steel Works & Iron Ore Mines are one of the most vulnerable parts for us to attack in Germany and our only reason why this has not been done more frequently is I believe the comparatively small number of Aeroplanes available.

 

In my view it would be a mistake now to commence these attacks until we have say 2000 or at all events a large number of planes available, and then a big attack should be made with a large number of machines on same day on number of Works and repeated for several weeks if possible every day.  To attack with few machines would be showing our hand, and would give then time to prepare for defence.  If possible the attack should be made before the winter is over and the Baltic open, so that it would be some months before they could replenish home supply of ores from this source.

SEE NOTE PAGE 7.

I have no criticism to offer and at the short time at my disposal have not been able to fully digest the mass of information you have collected and summarized and consequently cannot make any suggestions, and can only say you’re your report strikes me as most complete, and if the information given is used with knowledge, should be of greatest value to your military and Air Boards.

Yours sincerely (Signed) F.W. HARBORD.

 

IMPORTED ORES.

 

Before the War Germany had to import much iron ore to supplement that produced from Annexed (“German”) Lorraine and her other iron mines.  She imported nett over 11,000,000 tons of such ore in 1913, mostly from Sweden, Spain and France.  This subject is an important one and is considered in APPENDIX (E).

 

GENERAL.

 

This Report is a general survey of the subject, IRON, with detailed statistics, maps and plans of Western German Iron Blast-furnace Works, and statistics of the Iron Mines. Those of French Lorraine and Luxembourg are included which are in enemy occupation, as they are of great importance.

 

OTHER INDUSTRIES.  (See Last page, Appendix E)

 

Germany’s other War industries could also be studied and analysed in a similar way by men familiar with them.  Such studies and analysis would be of the greatest value in co-ordinating and directing the Allied Air Attacks on Germany, and in ensuring the maximum effect from such air attacks in demoralising the most vital enemy industries, and decreasing their production of Munitions of War.  There are in England, America and France, hundreds of men who have a great personal knowledge of German Iron and other industries.  This knowledge, if systematically collected, classified and analysed, would be of assistance to the Allied Air Boards.

 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

 

The data herein contained were secured in London at the Iron and Steel Institute; the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy and the Royal Geographical Society.

 

Statistics are considered dry literature; but the tables and data about Germany’s Iron Industry will not prove dry reading to anyone interested in this War.

 

The Writer is especially indebted to Professor F.W. HARBORD, of the Ministry of Munitions, for his introduction to Mr. G.C. LLOYD, Secretary of the Iron and Steel Institute, who has placed its large technical library and his personal knowledge of the Iron Works at the Writer’s disposal.

 

Harold Abbot Titcomb

Member Am. Inst. of Min. Engrs.

“ Inst of Mining & Metallurgy.

F.R.G.S.

 

NOTE.  In this War, estimates for amount of materials, guns etc, required have often proved far too small.  It would be wise, therefore, to allow a large factor of safety – say at least 5 – in making estimates as to the number of aeroplanes required to successfully attack German War Industries and master them.  It would be impossible to have too many aeroplanes: the greater the number, the quicker and more certain the results.

 

Copy No 5.

 

 

 

APPENDIX A.

 

 

THE LORRAINE LUXEMBOURG DISTRICT

see MAP (2)

 

This District includes two main features:

(1) THE IRON ORE DEPOSITS and MINES producing most of Germany’s Iron Ore.

(2) THE BLAST FURNACE WORKS near the Mines producing 1/3 of Germany’s Pig-iron.

 

(1) THE IRON ORE DEPOSITS AND IRON MINES.

 

General Description and Geology.

 

Deposits. The Iron ore deposits are beds of ore which outcrop (on the surface) along the ridge of hills from Metz North westerly to Longwy.  This outcrop follows almost exactly the high contours of the ridge, the beds or seams of ore are inclined towards France, and dip gradually underground, becoming deeper and deeper in the direction of Verdun.  The iron formation has been found in bore holes as far West as Verdun, at a depth of 580 metres, but under unworkable conditions.

 

There are several beds or seams of ore, the ‘Grey Seam’ being the main one. The ore is called ‘Minette’, and is an oolitic hydrated haematite with various other carbonates, oxides silicates of iron.  The iron content averages 33% which is poorer ore than that from Lake Superior (53% Fe) or Sweden (60% Fe).  Most of the ‘Minette’ ores, however, have the very valuable quality of a constant phosphorus content and of being self-fluxing.  These qualities, the vast tonnage of the deposits, and their location, have combined to make this region the second iron ore producer of the world.

 

Nancy. To the South of Metz, near Nancy, is found an isolated and small outlying ore district.  It is of minor importance, and, being within our lines, is not here considered.  The Nancy iron ore basin in 1913 produced under 2,000,000 tons of ore.

 

The Main         The Main Lorraine Iron field, as shown on MAP (2) is now entirely in Orefield.     Enemy possession.  It is a tableland, or plateau, bounded by a sharp high ridge on the East and North, and sloping towards France.  This plateau is cut by deep erosion valleys of several streams and rivers flowing mostly N.E. into the Moselle.

 

Mines. Along the Eastern and Northern fringe of the field, where the ore outcrops, the mines are usually open cuts or quarries, together with Adits or inclined shafts penetrating the ore seams.  To the West and South, however, where the ore seams dip deeper underground, vertical shafts have been sunk to reach the bed; and most of the mines in the whole field are shaft mines.  The depth of these shafts increases from East to West owing to the dip of the strata, the shafts varying from 50 to 250 metres in depth, averaging say 500 feet deep.

 

Water. The shaft mines are very wet, it being necessary to keep large pumps constantly going, otherwise the mines would become flooded and working would become impossible.  In some of the mines as much as 30 cu. metres of water per minute (= 8,000 U.S. gallons) is pumped.  5 to 20 cu m per minute is common; and to handle the water large and powerful pumping plants are used, often 1,000 to 2,000 Horse power.

These are important facts; for if the pumping plant of the Mines could be bombed, the mine would be flooded and mining would cease. One objective, therefore, for air attack would be the surface electric power plants and steam plants, which are keeping the shaft mines dry and workable.

 

Head-frames The ore from the shaft mines is raised to the surface by powerful

and                  hoisting or winding engines.  These, together with the tall and

Hoisting          conspicuous head-gear which is built right at the collar of the shaft, are vital to the mine’s operation, and if injured by bombs would shut down the mine.

 

Workmen’s Colonies are a usual adjunct to the mines, providing housing accommodation for the miners. These miners are directly engaged in furnishing the raw material which the German Army and Navy uses against us in the form of Cannon, Shells, rifles, machine guns, submarines, mines, war vessels, rails and rolling stock, and some of this iron is being dropped on London in the form of bombs.  These miners are as directly concerned in the War as are the soldiers and sailors of the Enemy; and the Workmens’ Colonies offer another legitimate and effective objective for our air attacks.

 

The Open Pit or Quarry Mines would not be injured to any extent by bombing. Hence, in these open surface mines it would appear more effective to use a very large number of small sized bombs or grenades which could be sprinkled freely throughout the open workings.  Such attacks, if repeated often enough, would greatly demoralise the open cut miners and decrease their efficiency and decrease the output of iron ore from such mines.

 

The following TABLE (1) proves the vast importance to Germany of the Lorraine Ironfield.  This field is seen to contain over 5,000 million tons of iron ore, or about 90% of all the iron ore now in the possession of Germany.  The whole field has been seized in war from FRANCE AND LUXEMBOURG.

 

 

TABLE (1)                                          IRON ORE.

 

 

(A) CONTROLLED BY GERMANY BEFORE THE WAR
      Ore Reserves Ore Production
District No of Mines Area Sq Miles % of Iron Tons % of Total Reserves Years Life 1913 Tons % of Total
ANNEXED LORRAINE

LUXEMBOURG

SIEGERLAND

ALL OTHER GERMANY (By Difference)

 

44

88

58

 

166

14

Scattered

 

30

33

38

 

 

 

24

 

2,130,000,000

250,000,000

115,000,000

 

 

 

595,000,000

 

 

69

8

4

 

 

 

19

 

100

34

44

 

 

 

122

 

 

21,153,328

7,333,372

2,606,991

 

 

 

4,847,594

 

59

20

7

 

 

 

14

 

TOTAL AS ABOVE     30 3.090,000,000 100 86 35,941,285 100
 
(B) SIEZED FROM FRANCE IN THIS WAR
FRENCH LORRAINE 32 185 33% to 40% 3,000,000,000   170 17,712,362  
 
(C) THE WHOLE LORRAINE IRON ORE FIELD AT A GLANCE
ANNEXED LORRAINE, LUXEMBOURG FRENCH LORRAINE 164 365 33% 5,380,000,000   114 46,199,062  

 

TABLE (2)                  WHERE LORRAINE IRON ORE WAS SMELTED.

 

Where smelted Source of the Ore TOTAL TONS
(1) French Lorraine 1913 Luxembourg 1912 Annexed Lorraine 1913
In France

In Germany. Annxd Lorraine

Saar

Westphalia

In BELGIUM
In LUXEMBOURG

In OTHER COUNTRIES

11,384,000

815,000

221,000

1,002,000

4,697,000

1,201,000

76,000

367,000

180,000

351,000

526,000

1,297,000

3,813,000

500,000

11,177,000

2,812,000

2,910,000

237,000

3,500,000

12,251,000

12,172,000

3,384,000

4,438,000

6,231,000

8,514,000

76,000

TOTAL 19,396,000 6,534,000 21,136,000 47,066,000
(J. Laspiere. “Le Genie Civil” Apl 7. 1917)

Note (1) French Lorraine in above Table includes Nancy Basin.

 

 

The Production and Location of the Iron Mines in Annexed (“German”) Lorraine are given in TABLE (3).

 

To illustrate the importance of these mines, take for example the German Mine at Aumetz, with a production of 900,000 tons of ore per annum.  This ore goes by aerial tramway to the Blast-furnace Works of the Lothringer Huttenverein near Kneuttingen.  (See MAP (2) Red Reference No 9 and Plans and Photos. Page 20).  Here it is smelted into 300,000 tons of pig-iron.  This amount of pig-iron is later converted into 300,000 tons of Steel, which is sufficient to make

 

1,000 miles of double track railway line, 90 lb rails with fish-plates; slipped.

Or enough shells to equal the entire German output of shells for 75 days in 1915. (See Appendix E. p.39.)

 

The 9 furnaces of this Company have been running full-blast and uninterruptedly the past year, according to their Annual Report, And the Aumetz is by no means the largest of the German Mines; and in 1913 the French Mines at Auboue produced over 2,000,000 tons of ore.

 

French Owned Mines are listed in TABLE (4). These French Mines are now all seized and occupied by the Enemy.  The Writer cannot determine whether or not they are being worked by the Germans, but this must be well known to the French Authorities.  If these French Mines are supplying ore to the Enemy, they should certainly be bombed and flooded, and their surface plants injured as much as possible.  The French Owners should not object to this.  The ore would not be injured; and after the War is over the mines could be pumped out, their machinery repaired and the workings re-opened at a cost which is trifling when compared to the daily cost of the War and the issues at stake.  Meanwhile the Lorraine Mines and Furnaces are pouring vitality into all Germany.

 

————————————————–

 

The Approximate Location of these Mines is shewn on Maps now at the Iron and Steel Institute in London.  Their more exact Location can be seen on the large-scale maps of the Comite des Forges de France, 7, Rue de Madrid, Paris.

 

 

TABLE (3) PRODUCTION of the IRON MINES of ANNEXED LORRAINE.

Concessions Name of Company Working Concession Ore Production for 1912
 

Heidt…………………

Les Huits Jours………

Ob der Noke…………

Redingen…………….

Bouvenberg………….

Gluckauf……………..

Rothe Erde…………..

Saint Michel…………

Adlergrund………….

Diggenthal………….

Butte……………….

Aumetz…………….

Amalienzeche………

Reichsland………….

Oettingen I …………

Oettingen III ………

Aachen……………..

Sterkrade Anschl……

Langenberg………….

Wollmeringen…………

Kraemer…………….

Carl Lueg…………….

Havingen…………….

Fentsch………………

Burbach………………

Viktor……………….

Richling……………

Pennsbrunnen II……

Moltke………………

Karl Ferdinand…….

Friede…………….

De Wendel…………

Moyeuvre………….

Gt. Moyeuvre………

Lothringen………….

Orne……………….

Saint Paul………….

Ver. Rombach……..

Rosslingen………….

Pauline et Grueze……

Sainte Maria………..

Jacobus…………….

Pierrevillers……….

Maringen………….

 

Burbach………….

Burbach……………..

Burbach……………..

Dillingen……………

Stumm………………

Dillingen……………

Gelsenkirchen……….

Gelsenkirchen……….

Lorraine Industrielle…

Gelsenkirchen……….

Aubrives et Villerupt..

Aumetz-la-Paix………

Krupp………………..

Hoesch………………

Deutsch Luxembourg..

Deutsch Luxembourg..

Monceau Saint Fiacre..

Gutehoffsnungshutte….

Krupp……………….

Eschweiler………….

Burbach……………..

Gutehoffsnungshutte….

Aumetz-la-Paix………

Bochum………………

Burbach……………..

Burbach……………..

Rochling …………….

Rheinische Stahlwerke…

Bocking……………….

Stumm………………..

Aumetz-la-Paix………

De Wendel……………

De Wendel……………

De Wendel……………

Stumm………………….

Rombach………………

Rombach………………

Rombach………………

Rombach………………

Rombach………………

Rombach………………

Thyssen……………….

Thyssen……………….

Sambre et Moselle……..

Tons

87,055

26,992

62,855

203,809

114,652

43,830

1,580,408

1,067,272

29,583

30,827

43,959

886,716

253,874

668,614

544,152

732,200

133,011

123,361

167,793

169,263

207,271

616,881

648,010

763,681

479,085

178,730

1,379,588

491,103

675,290

989,543

124,374

1,396,608

1,041,178

388,275

349,311

569,618

260,751

140,905

12,821

434,203

807,372

601,721

119,117

413,573

TOTAL 44 Mines 20,050,245

(From “Le Genie Civil” ‘Le Gisement de mineral de fer Lorraine’ by J. Tribot Laspiere. 7th April 1917.)

 

TABLE (4) PRODUCTION of the IRON MINES OF FRENCH LORRAINE now in Enemy Possession.

Mines

 

Name of Company Ore Production for 1913
Longwy District

Mont-Saint-Martin….

Moulaine…………….

Warnimont…………..

Saulnes Longlaville….

Pulventeux…………..

Romain………………

Le Coulmy………….

 

Villerupt District

Hussigny……………

Godbrange………….

Tiercelet…………….

Villerupt et Crusnes…

Micheville…………..

Brehain…………….

 

 

L’Orne District

Auboue……………

Homecourt…………

Moutiers……………

Joeuf……………….

Valleroy……………

Droitaumont……….

Jarny………………

Giraumont…………

 

Landres District.

Pienne……………..

Landres……………

Amermont…………

Joudreville…………

La Mouriere………..

Murville……………..

 

Tucquegnieux District

Tucquegnieux……….

Saint Pierremont…….

Sancy………………..

Anderny……………..

Errouville…………….

 

1st Longwy Basin

Ste. des Acieries de Longwy………..

Ste. des Acieries de Longwy………..

Ste. Métallurgique de Musson

MM. Raty et Cie et de Saintignon et Cie..

Ste. Lorraine de minerals de fer…….

Ste. Métallurgique de Gorcy………..

Ste. Métallurgique de Gorcy………..

 

 

Ste. des Mines de Hussigny………..

Ste. des Mines de Godbrange………

Syndicat de Tiercelet………………..

Ste. d’Aubrives-Villerupt…………..

Ste. des Acieries de Micheville…….

Ste. des Acieries de Micheville…….

 

2nd Briey Basin

 

Ste. des Fonderies de Pont-a-Mousson..

Cie des Fges de la Marine et d’Homect.

Ste. des Mines de Moutiers………

MM. Wendel et Cie……………

Ste. Des Mines de Valleroy………

MM. Schneider et Cie……………

Ste. des Mines de Jarny…………

Ste. des Mines de Giraumont……

 

 

Ste. du Nord et de l’Est………….

Ste. des Acieries de Micheville…..

Ste. des Mines d’Amermont………

Ste. des Mines de Joudreville………

Ste. des Mines de La Mouriere………

Ste. des Mines de Murville…………

 

 

Ste. des Acieries de Longwy……….

Ste. des Mines de Saint Pierremont…

MM. Raty et Cie…………………….

Ste. des Mines d Anderny…………

Ste. des Mines d Errouville…………

 

Tons

29,254

221,928

38,404

460,131

208,720

13,134

914

 

 

425,707

431,422

396,476

97,947

 

284,476

2,608,513

 

 

2.008,529

1,785,548

919,843

763,634

293,767

404,687

347,206

………..

 

 

1,131,184

1,087,900

1,068,151

883,834

684,083

422,600

 

 

1,113,200

846,153

688,000

480,000

175,530

15,103,849

TOTAL………. 32 MINES 17,712,362

 

 

 

(2) THE BLAST-FURNACE WORKS of the LORRAINE FIELD

 

These can be classified in two lots:-

(1)   Those of Annexed Lorraine and Luxembourg (German controlled before the War)

(2)   Those of French Lorraine (now in German occupation).

 

Location. The location of these Works and the number of Blast-furnaces at each Works is shewn in detail on MAP (2), which has been compiled from various German and French Maps and technical articles in their Scientific and Trade literature.  The location will be found to be fairly accurate seldom more than ¼ a mile in error.

 

The Works are seen to be condensed in two localities, one fringing the North end of the ore field, and the other at its East centre.

 

On MAP (2) the German Works are reference numbered in red 1 to 22 from South to North beginning at the most Southerly works just north of Metz.

 

The French Works are reference numbered in red 23 to 34 (South to North), beginning at their most southerly works, Auboue.

 

TABLE (5) gives a detailed list of the German Works, their Blast-furnaces, Converters, Open-Hearth furnaces and output. This Table has been built up principally from various German data and maps in their technical journals, and from Ryland’s Directory.

 

TABLE (6) gives a similar detailed list of French Works. It is taken from “Le Genie Civil” April 7, 1917, p 225.

 

 

TABLE (5) “GERMAN” LORRAINE AND LUXEMBOURG IRONWORKS (from N. to S.)

 

Map Ref No Location Name of Company No of Blast Furns: Bessemer Converters Open Hearth Furnaces Approx: Production 1913 Remarks
 

22

 

 

21

 

 

20

19

 

18

17

 

16

 

15

 

14

 

13

 

12

 

11

10

9

8

7

 

6

5

4

 

3

2

 

1

(North)

DOMMELDINGEN, Lx

 

 

Do

 

 

STEINFORT, Lx

RODINGEN, Lux

 

DIFFERDINGEN, Lx

REDINGEN, Lorr

 

ESCH Lux

 

Do

 

DEUTSCH OTH. Lx (Audin-le-Tiche)

DUDELINGEN

 

RUMELINGEN .Lx

 

OETTINGEN, Lor

FENTSCH, Lor

KNEUTTINGEN, Lor

HAYINGEN. Lor

DIEFENHOFEN. Lor (Thionville)

UECKINGEN, Lor

MOYEUVRE, Lor

ROMBACH, Lor

 

HAGENDINGEN, Lor

MAIZIERES, Lor

 

Do

 

 

Eicher Huttenvereins Le Gallet, Metz et Cie

 

Vereinigte Huttenwerke Burbach-Eich-Dudelingen

 

Collart C & J

Soc, Anon.d’Ougree Marihaye

Deutsch Luxembourg

Dillinger Huttenwerk

 

Vereinigte Huttenwerke Burbach-Eich-Dudelingen

Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks

 

Do

 

Vereinigte Huttenwerke Burbach-Eich-Dudelingen

Rumelingen Hochofen & Stalwerke.

Do

Lothringer Hutten Vereins

Do

De Wendel

Rochlingsche E & S Werke

 

Stumm

De Wendl

Rombacher Hutten Werke

 

Stalwerk Thyssen A.G.

Hutten Verein Sambre & Moselle

Rombacher Hutten Werke

 

 

3

 

3

 

 

3

4

 

10

3

 

6

 

13

 

4

 

6

 

3

 

3

3

6

10

4

 

6

7

7

 

6

3

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-10t

 

5-18 t

 

 

4-22 t

 

4-25 t

 

 

 

3-22 t

 

 

 

 

 

5-20 t

6-12 t

 

 

 

4-10 t

5-20 t

 

4-28 t

 

 

 

 

2-25 t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-20 t

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-22 t

 

 

 

 

4-25 t

 

2-80 t

 

 

 

 

 

Tons

100,000

 

 

113,000

 

 

68,000

182,000

 

438,000

110,000

 

350,000

 

950,000

 

260,000

 

270,000

 

150,000

 

150,000

211,000

325,000

360,000

260,000

 

310,000

276,000

487,000

 

640,000

130,000

 

292,000

 

Elec Steel Wks

 

Elec Steel Furnaces

 

 

Roll Mill

 

Do

 

 

Do

 

Do

 

 

 

Do

 

 

 

 

 

Do

Do

 

 

 

Do

Do

Elec Frns

Roll Mills

 

 

 

  (South) 22 WORKS 117 43 13 6,432,000  

 

 

 

TABLE (6) FRENCH LORRAINE BLAST-FURNACE IRONWORKS in German Occupation (From North to South).

 

Map Ref No Location Name of Company No of Blast Furnaces No of Bessemer Converters Actual Pig-Iron Production Year 1913
 

34

 

33

 

32

 

31

 

 

 

 

30

29

28

27

 

26

 

 

25

24

 

23

(North)

ATHUS (BELGIUM)

 

GORCY

 

SENELLE

 

LONGWY: Mont-St-Martin

Longwy

Longwy

 

REHON

SAULINES

HUSSIGNY

MICHEVILLE

 

VILLERUPT

Do

 

JOUEF

HOMECOURT

 

AUBOUE

 

 

Soc. Anon des Hauts Fourn et Acieries d’Athus

Soc Métallurgique de Gorcy…………………..

Ste. Metall. De Senelle Maubeurge………………

Ste. des Acieries de Longwy…………………

MM. de Saintignon et Cie

Ste. des Hts Fourn de la Chiers………………….

Ste. de la Providence

Marc Raty et Cie…….

Ste. Lorraine Industrielle..

Ste. des Acieres de Micheville……………….

Ste. d’Aubrives Villerupt

Ste. Metall de Senelle-Mauberge……………….

MM. de Wendel et Cie…..

Ac de la Marine et d’Homecourt…………….

Ste. des Fond. de Pont-a-Mousson………………….

 

 

2

 

2

 

5

 

9

5

 

4

3

4

2

6

 

2

2

 

8

6

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

6

 

 

3

3

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

6

4

 

 

 

Tons

 

50,000 (1)

 

36,000

 

178,500

 

365,000

173,000

80,000

 

190,000

95,000

52,000

390,000

 

70,000

71,500

 

394,000

454,000

 

180,000

 

 

  (South) TOTAL 15 WORKS 63 30 2,779,000

 

  • Estimated

 

A brief description of Blast-furnace Works and their operations, will enable anyone to realise

(1) How very large and extensive the works are, and hence, what large marks they offer to air attack.

(2) What an enormous amount of machinery is condensed into these areas.

(3) How very dependent on the smooth running of each machine or part is the whole operation of producing pig-iron.

(4) How little protected the machinery is against air attack.

(5) How prominent a landmark such works are, because of the size and peculiar appearance of the Blast-furnaces and Hot Blast stoves.

 

  • Take for example the Gelsenkirchener Company’s Works at ESCH. (See Red Reference No 15, MAPS (2) and (3), Photos 15, Pages 21-23).  Here 8-Furnace Works called ‘Adolph Emil Hutte’ alone are seen to cover a space over a mile long and half a mile wide.
  • Not all this area is covered with machinery, but the percentage of space so covered is remarkably large. The entire western end and middle of the area is plastered over with important power machinery, furnaces, hot-blast stoves, Bessemer Converters, blowing engines, etc inter connected by a thick network of railway lines, travelling cranes, and mechanical ore-moving devices.  The Rolling Mill building in the middle is a quarter of a mile long.  The adjacent “Colonies” for workmen and staff are congested centres of highly skilled labour.

 

The whole works produce nearly a million tons of pig-iron per year, or one twentieth of the pig-iron production of the German Empire in 1913-

If the whole German armed forces are guessed at 5,000,000 men,    then these Esch Works alone represent, proportionately, 250,000 men in terms of industrial strength for War.

 

This does not include the two other works numbered in Red 14 and 16 on MAP (3) Page 21 but only the works No 15.

 

  • A Blast-furnace plant can be regarded as a delicately balanced and complex machine:

 

If the central power plant is stopped, the whole works stop.

If the Blowing Engines stop, the whole works stop.

If the huge air pipes are broken, one or more furnaces stop.

If Hot-blast Stoves are hit, one or more furnaces stop.

If Furnaces are hit, the effect would be disastrous.

If the Mixer, containing hundreds of tons of molten iron at a temperature of 2,500o F is hit, the effect can be easily imagined.

 

The workmen (about 6,000 are employed in a works of this size, including the attached steel works and rolling mills) are largely skilled, and are engaged in arduous labour, many of them operating powerful machines of thousands of horse power, others tapping the furnaces or moving great ladles of molten iron. The demoralising effect upon these workmen of big air raids, day after day or night after night, would be immense.

 

This is not guesswork:

 

The known demoralising effect of only a limited number of German night raids upon a certain iron district, resulted in a decrease of 30,000 tons per week in its pig-iron production.

 

Any Iron Metallurgist knows that a furnace ‘freeze-up’ might result from such frequently repeated air raids; and if a Blast-furnace is once ‘frozen’ nothing can be done except to take down the whole furnace and rebuild it.

This operation is a matter of months of work, because of the slow-setting nature of the fire cement, and the necessity of a gradual drying of the furnace lining.

 

  • Blast-furnace works are either out in the open or are sheltered by large thin-roofed buildings with roofs of steel-truss construction, the roofing material being merely designed to keep out rain and snow.

A bomb or grenade would puncture such roofing material as easily as a sheet of paper.

 

  • Blast-furnace works offer a particularly prominent landmark. In the case of the works at ESCH above mentioned, the 8 huge furnaces and 40 hot-blast Stoves tower over a hundred feet into the air.  The furnaces and stoves are of such a peculiar appearance that once seen they can always be recognised.  If an aviator is shewn a similar works in England or France, or even photographs of the furnace, he could not fail to recognise any other blast-furnace works by daylight.  The furnaces and stoves are of such size that they could be ‘spotted’ many miles away.

 

By night, the red glow from the pig-bed, or sometimes the blinding glare from the electric steel furnace, or the flame from the Bessemer Converters, would be a helpful guide for our aeroplanes.

 

Typical Photographs, detailed Plans and Sections, illustrating some of these Iron Works are attached hereto, for the purpose of explaining the appearance, size and character of Blast-furnace Works, and why they are especially sensitive to injury by air attack. These Photographs and plans appeared mostly in “Stahl und Eisen” and “Gluckauf” the two principal German publications dealing with the subject.

 

 

APPENDIX B.

 

THE SAAR DISTRICT.

See MAP (2)

 

This District includes two main features

(1)   THE COAL DEPOSITS and MINES producing about 9% of Germany’s Coal.

(2)   THE BLAST FURNACE WORKS near the Mines producing about 7% of Germany’s Pig-iron.

 

(1)   THE SAAR COAL DEPOSITS AND MINES.

General Description.

The Coal Fields of the Saar begin 12 miles East of METZ and extend North-Easterly past the town of Saarbrucken, as seen on MAP (2).

 

Area of Coalfield……………………….. 600 square miles.

Main producing area………………………120     “       “

Coal Reserves…………………………….16,548,000,000 tons

Production in 1913 was………………………17,013.014 tons

 

The Coal Mines lie thickest in the neighbourhood of Saarbrucken and the Iron Works are shewn in red on MAP (2).  Most of the Coal Mines are owned by the Prussian State.

 

The Coal Measures extend South-Westerly into France, where they have been found in boreholes in the Pont-a-Mousson region.  Because of the occurrence of this Coal, together with the nearness of the Lorraine Iron ores, a number of Blast-furnace Works have been located in the heart of the Saar Coalfield.

 

(2)   THE BLAST-FURNACE WORKS OF THE SAAR DISTRICT are only five in number; their location is shewn on MAP (2) and one of the largest works is shown in detail on Plan 37.  They are as follows:-

TABLE (7)

 

Map Ref No Location Name of Company Blast Furnaces Bess. Converts Open Hearth Furn: Approx: Output 1913 tons of Pig-iron Remarks
35

36

 

37

 

 

 

 

38

39

DILLINGEN

VOLKINGEN

 

BURBACH

 

 

 

 

BREBACH

NEUNKIRCHEN

Stumm Works

Rochlingsch E & S Werke

Vereinigte Hutten Burbach-Eich-Dudelingen A.G.

Rud. Bocking

Stumm

4

8

 

8

 

 

 

 

5

6

4

5

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

4

10

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

264,000

340,000

 

360,000

 

 

 

 

170,000

240,000

Roll Mill

Do

Do

Elec.

Furns

 

 

 

14 Pudd. Frns.

  5 Works   31 18 14 1,374,000  

 

Some of the Saar Iron Works have already been bombed occasionally by the Allies. As they are all within 70 miles of NANCY, they should be heavily and repeatedly bombed and put out of business, if we have enough available aeroplanes to do the work.

 

 

 

APPENDIX C.

 

THE WETPHALIAN DISTRICT.

See MAP (4)

 

Besides Steel and other Industries of vast importance in this War, this District includes two main features:

 

(1)   THE COAL DEPOSITS and MINES producing over half of Germany’s Coal

(2)THE BLAST FURNACE WORKS near the Coal Mines producing nearly half of Germany’s Pig-iron.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

The Westphalian District extends from the Rhine at Duisburg easterly through Essen and beyond Dortmund, and includes the outlying steel-producing towns of

 

GLADBACH

DUSSELDORF

CREFELD

ELBERFELD

BARMEN

SOLINGEN and

REMSCHEID.

 

Excepting as regards iron ore production (in which Lorraine is pre-eminent) this region is the busiest and most important industrial centre in the German Empire.  The whole district contains over 1,000 square miles.  About half this area is crammed full of collieries, iron and steel works, copper and zinc smelters, engineering, manufacturing, chemical and munition works of every description.  These industries are served by a vast and splendid network of railways, inland harbours, canals and navigable rivers.  At the mouth of the Ruhr River at Ruhrort and Duisburg is one of the largest river harbours in the world, it alone handling before the War 20,000,000 tons of material per year, including 6,000,000 tons of high-grade iron ores imported chiefly from Sweden and Spain.  (See Small MAP (5) Page 31)

 

Westphalia lies 200 miles North-Easterly from NANCY.  The distance is great; but if this district could be disorganised by repeated air raids on a large scale, it would have an instantaneous and most vital effect upon the whole conduct of the War by Germany.  No Iron ore is produced here, and the ore must be brought in from Lorraine or abroad, otherwise Blast-furnaces would stop, pig-iron production would cease, and ship-building and steel and munition plants all over Germany would suffer disastrously.

 

Westphalian industries depend on two main sources

On LORRAINE for Iron ore and Pig-iron

On SWEDEN (and other countries) for Imported Iron ore.

 

  • THE WESTPHALIAN COAL FIELD AND COAL MINES.

The Coal Fields of Rhenish Westphalia begin along the Rhine 35 miles North of Cologne, and extend Eastward for more than 50 miles, as seen on KEY MAP (1) and MAP (4).

The District centres in Essen, and lies 200 miles North-Easterly from NANCY.

 

Areas of Coalfield……………………..                     1,000 sq. miles.

Main central portion 10 x 35 miles……                       350        do

Coal Reserves…………………………        213,706,000,000  tons

Coal production, 1913………………..                 110,722,000  tons

 

The Prussian Crown has been lately purchasing and is now owner of a large portion of the Westphalian Collieries.

 

It is because of the coal that this district and its outskirts have attained so prominent a position among German industrial regions. Also because of the Coal, many Iron Blast-furnace Works are located here.

 

  • THE BLAST-FURNACE WORKS of the WESTPHALIAN DISTRICT.

are only 18 in number, but are so large that they produced over 43% of all Germany’s pig-iron in 1913 1916.  The location of these works is shewn on MAP (4).  Each Works is numbered on the map in red figures (reference numbers); and the black figures show how many blast-furnaces there are at each Works.

TABLE (8) overleaf gives detailed statistics of the 18 Works, and has been compiled from various data in German Trade and technical Journals and Ryland’s Directory.

 

For judging the relative importance of these works to Germany’s pig-iron production, see Condensed TABLE (11) APPENDIX (E).  Most of these 18 Works produce not only pig-iron but also Steel.

 

 

 

 

TABLE (8) RHEINISH WESTPHALIA INONWORKS

 

Map Ref No Location Name of Company or Works No of Blast Furnaces Bess. Converts Open Hearth Furn: Approx: Yearly Pig-iron Production 1913 Remarks
44

 

45

 

46

 

47

 

 

48

 

 

49

 

 

50

51

 

 

52

 

 

 

 

53

 

 

 

 

54

 

 

 

55

 

 

 

56

 

 

 

57

 

 

 

58

 

 

59

 

 

60

 

61

RHEINHAUSEN

 

HOCHFELD (DUISBURG)

Do

 

MEIDERICH Nr RUHRORT

 

LAAR Nr RUHRORT

 

BRUCKHAUSEN

 

 

MEIDERICH

OBERHAUSEN

 

 

MULHEIM

 

 

 

 

STEELE

 

 

 

 

GELSENKIRCHEN

 

 

 

BOCHUM

 

 

 

HATTINGEN RUHR

 

 

 

DORTMUND

 

 

 

Do

 

 

APLERBECK

 

 

HASPE Nr Hagan

 

HUSTEN

Fried Krupp

 

Eisenwerk Kraft

 

Duisburger Kupferhutte

Rheinische Stahlwerk

 

 

Phoenix A.G.

 

 

Thyssen Gewerkschaft Deutsch Kaiser

Huttenbetrieb A.G.

Gutehoffnungshutte

 

 

Deutsch Luxembourg Bergwerk & Hutten A.G. “Wilhelmshutte”

 

Deutsch Luxembourg Bergwerk & Hutten A.G. “Unionshutte”

 

 

Gelsenkirchen Bergwerke

 

 

Bochumer Verein

 

 

 

Henschel & Sohn

 

 

 

Deutsch Luxembourg Bergwerk & Hutten A.G. “Unionshutte”

 

Hoesch Eisen & Stahl Werke

 

Westphalisch E & Drahtwerke

 

Hasper E & S Werke

 

Hustener Gewerkschaft

9

 

4

 

6

 

5

 

 

21

 

 

6

 

 

5

11

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

3

 

3

 

2

5-20 t

 

 

 

 

 

4-15 t

 

 

4-13 t

 

 

5-15 t

 

 

 

6-22 t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-9 t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5-20 t

 

 

 

3-12 t

1-20 t

 

 

 

 

3-8 t

 

4-25 to 40 t

6-40 t

 

4-65 t

4-45 t

 

 

1-20 t

3-10 t

4-28 t

 

1-15 t

5-20 t

 

7-20 t

2-40 t

 

10-15 to 45 t

3-75 t

3-12 t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-15 t

1-30 t

 

 

2-25 t

5-25 t

2-35 t

 

1-20 t

4-25 t

2-48 t

 

4-30 t

4-70 t

 

 

6-25 t

3-100 t

 

 

 

 

1,000,000

 

300,000

 

450,000

 

700,000

 

 

1,300,000

 

 

600,000

 

 

400,000

900,000

 

 

150,000

 

 

 

 

100,000

 

 

 

 

700,000

 

 

 

250,000

 

 

 

100,000

 

 

 

200,000

 

 

 

550,000

 

 

 

100,000

 

300,000

 

100,000

Rolling Mill 9000 Workmen

Private Co

 

Do

 

Rolling Mill

 

 

Do

 

 

Do

5 Heroult Elec Furns Priv Co.

 

Rolling Mill Electric Furns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rolling Mill

 

 

 

Do

 

 

 

Do

2 Heroult Elec Furns

 

Rolling Mills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do

 

    18 Works 108 39 94 8,200,000  

 

To illustrate the size and character of the great Westphalian Blast-furnace Works, the Photographs and plans on the 6 following pages are included in this Report.

 

Two Works have been selected as typical, viz:-

THE RHEINHAUSEN WORKS belonging to Krupp

Red Reference Number 44.

 

THE OBERHAUSEN WORKS of the Gutehoffnungshutte,

Red Reference Number 51.

 

Small MAP (5) overleaf, shows the location of SEVEN Westphalian Blast-furnace Works (Red Reference Numbers 44 to 50)

These 7 Works alone in 1913 produced approximately 4,750,000 tons of pig-iron, one quarter of Germany’s entire tonnage of pig-iron.

 

These Works are along the Rhine 12 miles West of Essen.  Attention is directed to the peculiar shape and appearance of the great River Harbours of Ruhrort, in the centre of MAP (5), which might be of assistance to airmen in recognising this spot.

 

 

 

APPENDIX D.

 

SIEGERLAND DISTRICT

COBLENTZ ON THE RHINE

PORZ ON THE RHINE

ESCHWEILER

 

The above Western German Iron Districts all lie within 170 miles of NANCY.  They are of minor importance, but produced nearly 4% of Germany’s Iron ore and 7% of her Pig-iron in 1913.

 

Location No of Works No of Furnaces Pig-iron Production 1913
SIEGERLAND

COBLENTZ

PORZ

ESCHWEILER

19

3

1

1

32

10

1

2

774,000 Tons

est 500,000   “

“ 50,000   “

“ 90,000   “

TOTAL 24 45 1,414,000   “

 

SIEGERLAND is the Southernmost portion of the province of Westphalia.

This Iron ore field lies some 45 miles easterly of Cologne, and extends from the town of Siegen in a South-Westerly direction.  It is about 10 X 20 miles in size, and the mines surround the Iron Works, which are shewn as red circles on MAP (4).

 

The Iron deposits occur as lodes, in zones or swarms. The ore is siderite, and normal Siegerland ore on which prices are based contains

9% MANGANESE.

 

ThisManganese content is important, as it is of use in the manufacture of Steel.

 

The Mines are very numerous and relatively small ones, hence would not be easy to attack by air. The Iron Works are also small, and the furnaces old.  There are about 19 such Blast-furnace Works in the district.

 

In 1913 the SIEGERLAND District produced

2,606,991 tons of Iron ore, or 7% of Germany’s total production.

774,000 tons of Pig-iron, or 3.8%           do           do        do

 

TABLE (9) SIEGERLAND BLAST-FURNACES.

 

Location Name of Firm Number of Furnaces
GREVENBRUCK…….

CREUZTHAL…………

WEIDENAU………….

Do…………………

SIEGEN………………

Do…………………

Do………………….

NIEDERSCHELDEN….

Do…………………..

EISERFELD…………..

Do…………………..

EISERN……………….

BRACHBACH………..

HERDORF……………

Do…………………..

DAADEN……………..

 

 

NEIDEREISBACH…….

GOSENBACH…………

BRUCKHOFE……….

Germaniahutte (Gussstahlwerk Witten)…..

Coln Musener Bergwerks A.V……………

Rolandhutte A.G………….……………..

Bremerhute A.G……………….…………

Hainerhutte A.G…………………………

Johanneshutte Aktien Verein……………..

Faconeisen Walzwerk. L. Mannstaedt A.G.

Niederscheldener Hutte A.G………………

Charlottenhutte A.G………………………

Eiserfelderhutte A.G………………………

Marienhutte (Westfalische Stalwerke Bochum).

Eiserner Hutte………………………………..

Gewerkschaft Apfelbaumer Zug……………

Bergbau & Hutten A.G. Friedrichshutte…….

Gewerkschaft Herdorfer Hutte………………

Gewerkschaft Grunebacher Hutte…………..

 

The following are not definitely located

Neiderdreisbacher Hutte……………………..

Storch & Achoneberg Gewerkschaft…………

Ver Stahlwerke Zypen und Wissener Eisen Hutten A.G.

 

1

3

3

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

1

1____

26

 

1

2

3

TOTAL 19 WORKS 32

 

COBLENTZ   On the East bank of the Rhine 5 to 8 miles N.W. of Coblentz are located 3 fairly important Blast-furnace Works, two of which belong to Krupps, and undoubtedly send pig-iron to Krupp’s great Steel Works at Essen.  These Works are 135 miles from NANCY; and being close to the Rhine might be easily found by our Airmen, should they be passing Coblentz.

 

No special Map is attached to show the location of these Works; but their exact position is shewn in Baedeker’s “RHINE” map opp p. 71 1911 Edition.

 

PORZ  The small Works at Porz is also on the Rhine, 5 miles above Cologne.  It is marked in Red No. 43 on MAP (4).

 

ESCHWEILER.         Eschweiler Works is about 12 miles N.E. of Aix-le-Chapelle.

 

TABLE (10) MISCELLANEOUS BLAST-FURNACE WORKS IN WESTERN GERMANY.

 

Ref No Location Company Blast Furns: Open Hearth PIG-IRON Approx Production 1913
..

 

 

 

43

 

 

42

 

 

41

 

 

40

ESCHWEILER AUE

 

 

 

PORZ-a-RHEIN

 

 

NEUWEID

 

 

ENGRS

 

 

BENDORF

Eschweiler Bergwerk verein. Abt. Eschweiler Klon Eisenwerke

 

Gewerksch Carl Otto Adelenhutte

 

Fried Krupp A.G. Hermanshutte

 

Fried Krupp A.G. Mulhofenerhutte

 

Concordiahutte A.G.

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

3

 

 

4

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

90,000 tons

 

 

 

50,000   “

 

 

200,000 “

 

 

250,000 “

 

 

50,000 “

 

    5 WORKS 13 2 640,000   “

 

 

APPENDIX E.

 

 

 

Secret Memorial

General Table German Blast Furnace Works and Pig-iron

General Summary Coal and Iron Production of Enemy Countries.

German Iron Ore Imports

Other Industries Suggested Submarines.

 

 

APPENDIX E.

 

Portion of Secret Memorial addressed by the Six great Industrial and Agricultural Associations of Germany to the German Chancellor on May 20th 1915.

A French translation of the memorial was published by the Comite des Forges de France, in their Circular No. 666 of August 24, 1915, from which the following extract has been translated into English by Mr. George C. Lloyd, Secretary, Iron and Steel Institute London, in August 1917.

 

“To His Excellency the Imperial Chancellor,

Dr. Von BETHMANN HOLLWEGG

Berlin

 

“………Concerning France, and especially of our position with regard to England, it is of vital interest to us that we should possess the coastal region of Belgium and about up to the Somme, which will give us an opening to the Atlantic Ocean. Apart from the necessary annexation of the ore district of Briey, any other territorial conquest in France would be governed by strategical considerations.  Besides the iron ore region of Briey it would also be necessary to acquire the coal region in the Departments of Nord and of the Pas de Calais.  The security of the German Empire imperatively requires the possession of all the minette mines, including the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun which are necessary for their defence.  The possession of the vast quantities of coal, and especially of the bituminous coal which abounds in Northern France, is no less important than the acquisition of the iron ore mines.

 

“The monthly production of pig-iron in Germany is about a million tons at the present time.  The monthly output of steel exceeds a million tons.  But with all this there is no great abundance of iron and steel.  The manufacture of shells of all kinds absorbs at least 4,000 tons of pig-iron per day though exact figures of the consumption are not to hand.

 

“As raw material for the manufacture of this quantity of iron and steel the minette ore is becoming more and more important, as this is the only ore we possess which can be mined in large quantities, and the extraction of which can be rapidly expanded.   The production of other ore districts is greatly reduced, and the importation by sea even of Swedish ores, is attended with such difficulties, that even in the manufacturing regions outside Lorraine and Luxembourg the minette ore at the present time supplies 50 to 80 per cent of the raw material for the production of iron and steel. If the output of minette were checked, the war would be as good as lost.”

 

(SIGNED BY) The League of Agriculturalists…………… Dr. Roesicke

The League of German Peasants……………Wachorst de Wente

The Provisional Group of Christian Associations of German Peasants,      at present the Westphalian Peasants Association….Baron de Twickel

The Central Union of German Industrials ……….…Roetger

The League of Industrials……………………………Friedrichs.

The Union of the Middle Classes of the Empire ……..Eberle.

 

DATED, Berlin, 20th May 1915.

 

 

TABLE (11) GERMAN BLAST-FURNACE WORKS and PIG-IRON

District No of Works Blast Furnaces Active 1913 Bessemer Converts Open Hearth Furnaces Pig- Iron Production
No % of Total Active 1913 Tons % of Total 1916 Tons % of Total
ANNEXED LORRAINE and Luxembourg

 

Saar District

 

Coblentz

 

Siegerland

 

Rhenish Westphalia

 

 

 

22

 

5

 

3

 

19

 

18

 

 

 

117

 

31

 

10

 

32

 

108

 

 

 

32.6

 

8.6

 

2.8

 

9.0

 

30.2

 

 

 

43

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

39

 

 

 

13

 

14

 

2

 

 

 

94

 

 

 

6,420,000

 

1,374,000

 

500,000

 

774,000

 

8,209,000

 

 

 

33.2

 

7.1

 

2.6

 

4.0

 

42.5

 

 

 

4,025,000

 

946,000

 

400,000

 

500,000

 

5,730,000

 

 

 

30.4

 

7.1

 

3.0

 

3.8

 

43.2

 

Total above Districts 67 298 83.2 100 123 17,277,000 89.4 11,601,000 87.5
All other German Districts 35 60 16.8     2,014,000 19.6 1,658,000 12.5
Grand Total. All Germany including Luxembourg 102 358 100.0     19,291,000 100.0 13,259,000 100.0

 

 

 

TABLE (12) SUMMARY OF COAL AND IRON PRODUCTION of Enemy Countries or Countries in Enemy Occupation

 

COAL

Germany

Austria-Hungary

 

Belgium

Total

1913 1914 1915 1916
191,511,000

17,519,000

 

22,842,000

231,872,000

161,535,000

16,321,000 Austria only

…………….

146,712,000

16,232,000

 

14,238,000

………….

17,602,000

Austria only

8,479,000

(1st 6 months)

IRON ORE

Germany (incg Lux & anxd Lorraine)

French Lorraine

Austria-Hungary

Belgium

Total

 

 

35,941,285

 

17,487,899

5,318,631

149,450

58,897,265

 

…………

 

……………

4,003,591

…………….

 

…………….

 

………….

1,238,268

(Hungary only)

 

 

……………

 

…………

…………….

…………..

 

PIG-IRON

Germany (incg Lux & anxd Lorraine)

French Lorraine

Austria-Hungary

 

Belgium

Total

 

 

19,291,920

 

2,729,000

2,380,864

 

2,484,690

26,886,474

 

14,391,611

 

………….

1,988,000

 

1,233,410

(First half)

 

11,789,931

 

…………….

1,959,084

 

…………

 

13,259,000

(Dec estd)

…………

1,969,124

(Austria only)

…………….

 

MANGANESE ORE

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Total

 

3,079,000

35,546

3,114,546

 

…………

25,221

 

………….

…………

 

…………..

……………..

 

RUSSIA

Coal

Iron Ore

Pig-Iron

Manganese Ore

 

33,369,000

8,077,000

4,557,000

970,000

 

33,274,000

…………

4,257,000

614,000

 

27,820,000

……….

3,649,000

32,200

 

……………

……………

2,826,964

253,975

 

(Compiled from Statistical Report of the Iron Steel and Allied Trades Federation, 1916, and other sources.

 

 

TABLE (13) GERMAN IRON ORE IMPORTS 1913.

 

Source ORE

Tons

Iron Content

Tons

% Iron
Sweden……………….

Spain………………….

Russia…………………

France…………………

Greece…………………

Algeria…………………

Tunis…………………..

Norway………………..

Belgium………………..

Newfoundland…………

Austria-Hungary………

4,558,400

3,632,100

489,400

3,810,900

147,200

481,200

136,400

303,500

127,100

121,200

106,000

2,928,800

1,816,100

296,100

1,393,900

73,600

240,600

68,200

197,300

63,600

64,200

42,400

64.25

50.00

60.50

36.70

50.00

50.00

50.00

65.00

50.00

53.00

40.00

TOTALS and AVERAGE 13,913,400 7,184,800 51.6%
Deduct Exported Iron Ores for 1913… 2,613,158 Tons
NET IMPORTS …………………….. 11,300,242   “

 

How this affected Germany’s Iron Industry is seen by the following:

 

Home produced Ores……………… 35,941,285 tons averaging 30% Iron

Net imported Ores…………………. 11,300,242 tons

TOTAL GERMAN CONSUMPTION 47,241,527 tons

 

(Compare TABLE (1) page 10)

 

The imported ores were much richer in iron content than the home produced ores; and in any serious attempt which might be made by the Allies to injure Germany’s Iron Industry, these imports of ore must be taken into consideration.  How much foreign ore is still being imported I do not know: but it is still being freely brought in to Germany from Sweden, according to the following Iron Market Report written by Dr. W. Beumer.  (overleaf)

 

(Imports from Gluckauf, 1914 p. 1444)

(Exports from Statistical Report Iron Steel & Allied Trades Federation July 1917)

 

NOTE: (This Dr. Beumer is Business Manager of the Association of German Iron & Steel Manufacturers.  He is of the “fire eating” type, and at this Association’s December Meeting in Berlin, they adopted a resolution urging the German Government not to conclude peace unless the conditions of peace include a definite guarantee that the French Mining districts of Briey and Longwy pass for ever into the possession of Germany.)

 

Quarterly Report of German Iron Market, July-Aug-Sept, 1917.

By Dr. Beumer.

 

 

RHINELAND WESTPHALIA

THE CONDITIONS OF THE ORE MARKET HAVE NOT CHANGED AS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE PREVIOUS QUARTER, EXCEPT THAT THE PRICE OF FOREIGN ORES ROSE STEADILY.  THE SHIPMENTS FROM LULEA (SWEDEN) HAVE CONTINUED UNTIL NOW UNDISTRUBED.   IN ORDER TO RELIEVE THE RAILWAYS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE MINETTE ORE WAS TRANS-SHIPPED AT THE RHINE PORTS FOR DISTRIBUTION, AND EVEN THE ILSEDER WORKS (NEAR HANOVER) WERE SUPPLIED VIA CANAL.

 

(Stahl und Eisen, Oct. 11 1917, p. 935)

H. A. Titcomb on German Industry 14 December 1917

HAROLD ABBOT TITCOMB
SALISBURY HOUSE
LONDON E.C.

TELEGRAPH AND
CABLE, “TITCOMB, LONDON”
CODE, BEDFORD MCNEILL

GERMANY’S IRON INDUSTRY AND THE WAR.
From the point of view
Of air attack.

By

HAROLD ABBOT TITCOMB, B.A., E.M.

NOTE. The Writer of this Report on Germany’s Iron Industry is a member of a Sub-Committee of the American Committee of Engineers in London. This Sub-Committee was formed in September 1917, with the object of receiving and digesting any scheme or proposal helpful in solving the Submarine Problem, and forwarding any promising suggestions to the A.S.D., British Admiralty, and the U.S. Authorities.

Very few proposals have been received; and it appears probable that almost everything conceivable has been already proposed for dealing with Submarines after they have left their bases and are scattered over their fields of operations.

It occurred to the Writer that the Submarine Problem has a definite connection with many German Industries, among them Iron. This Report deals mainly with Germany’s Iron; but a similar study of other industries would be of great help in solving successfully the Submarine Problem. (See pages 7 and 44.)

LONDON, 14th December 1917

Copy No 5.

CONTENTS.

SUMMARY. Page
Coal and Iron. Iron more vulnerable than Coal………………………….…1.
Distance Tables…………………………………………………………………2.
Lorraine Iron Field….Its predominant importance: Enemy opinion……..…3.
Effective Bombing and Recommendations of F.W. Harbord………………4-5.
General. Other War Industries. Sources of Information…………………..6-7.

APPENDIX A. THE LORRAINE – LUXEMBOURG DISTRICT.
(1) The Iron Ore Deposits and Mines……………………………………….8
General Description and Geology: Nancy Basin: Mines………………..8
Water, Head-frames, Workmens’ Colonies. Open Pits…………………9
TABLE (1) Iron Ore production of Germany & Lorraine District……..10
TABLE (2) Where Lorraine Ore was smelted………………………….10
French Owned Mines should be bombed……………………………….11
TABLE (3) Detailed List Iron Mines & Production of Anxd Lorraine…12
TABLE (4) do do do do French do………13

(2) The Blast-furnace Works of the Lorraine Field………………………….14
TABLE (5) Detailed List, Equipment and Production Anxd Lorraine & Luxembourg Iron Works…………………………………………….. 15
TABLE (6) do do Equipment and Production French Lorraine Iron Works……………………………………………………………………16
Reason why Blast-furnace Works are especially liable to injury…….17-19
Detailed Plan and 2 Photographs of Works near Kneuttingen Lorraine Red Ref. Nos 9 and 10………………………………………………………..20
MAP
(3) Of Esch Region on Luxembourg Frontier and Photo of Works Ref
No.15……………………………………………………………………..21
Detailed plan of Gelsenkircener Works at Esch Ref No. 15……….…… 22
Do Section do Furnaces & Stoves…………………….. 23
Do Plan of Burbach-Eich-Dudelingen Works near Esch Ref No. 16…24

APPENDIX B. THE SAAR DISTRICT.
Coal Deposits and Coal Mines……………………………………………25
TABLE (7) Detailed List of Saar Iron Works, Production etc…………..25
Detailed Plan of the Works at Burbach…………………………………..26

APPENDIX C. THE WESTPHALIAN DISTRICT.
General Description. Other Industries. Harbours etc……………………27
Coal Fields and Coal Mines………………………………………………28
Westphalian Blast-furnace Works………………………………………..28
TABLE (8) Detailed list of Works. Equipment. Pig-iron Production29-30
MAP (5) The Vicinity of Ruhrort Harbour………………………………31
Detailed Plan of Krupp’s Rheinhausen Works Ref. No. 44………………32
4 Photographs of do do do do………………..33-34
2 Plans of Guttehoffsnungshutte at Oberhausen Ref No. 51……………35
Detailed Section through Power plant and Furnaces at Oberhausen……..36
Photograph of Blast-furnaces and Hot-blast Stoves at Oberhausen………36

APPENDIX D. SIEGERLAND and MISCELLANEOUS.
Siegerland Manganiferous Iron Ore Field………………………………37
TABLE (9) Detailed List of Siegerland Blast-furnace Works…………..37
TABLE (10) Miscellaneous Blast-furnace Works in Western Germany…38

APPENDIX E.
Secret Memorial of the Six German Associations……………………….39
TABLE (11) General Condensed Table German Blast-furnace Works. Equipment and Pig-iron production………………………………………40
TABLE (12) Summary of Coal & Iron Production of Enemy Countries..41
TABLE (13) German Iron Ore Imports. Swedish Ores. Dr. Beumer..42-43
Study of other German Industries suggested. Photo…………………….44

F. Springett letter 13 December 1917

Same address

 

 

My Dear Brother Sid,

Thanks very much for your kind letter received yesterday so pleased to hear that you were quite well.  I am still very well at present.

Glad you liked the photo alright, they all tell me I looked jolly fat and well.

I don’t think I have ever felt better than I do now, yes, there’s plenty of fresh air attached to this job, that’s one thing.

I was of course down at Deal when the last Air-Raid was on, I got up and looked out of the window, but did not dress.

I saw a Gotha in a searchlight, it was a decent sight, my word, they did give him some shells to get on with.

We have had it fairly easy this week so far, a bit different than last week.  Ha Ha.

Lord French came down here today and had a look at us, it was only a march past this time.  He then went on to Canterbury.

It as been rather a miserable day.  I hope it will be fine for the holiday.

I think I can safely say that I shall be home for Christmas, our Captain is trying jolly hard for us, especially as he wants the holiday too.

Well, Sid don’t forget to send one of your photos as soon as you get them.

I don’t think I have anything else to say this time.

So Goodbye Best Love

I remain

Your Affec Brother

Frank

 

With cover to Mr S.K. Springett, 29 Bath Road Dartford Kent

Postmarked Margate 5 PM 13 DE 17

War Diary of AA Laporte Payne 9 December 1917

War Diary of AA Laporte Payne

EXTRACTED FROM.

Brigade Diary, Personal Diary, Operation Orders, Note Books, Memoranda
Correspondence
—————–

9th December 1917.
R.P. December 9, 1917.

Still no mail, so I cannot answer your letters, which I know are somewhere on the way here.

It is extraordinarily cold here, frost most of the day, and every night. We are still moving. There is some sickness among the officers and men, but nothing much or serious. It is due chiefly I think to the change in weather and living. I am keeping very fit.

The Major is still away so I have the battery in charge. Everything goes well, the horses have never looked batter, and the men seem to be contented.

We are at present in a country village not too far away from a large town which we can on occasion visit to buy goods and spend a few moments. But the prices are going up against us now.

The houses we inhabit are rather cold and draughty at present, but no doubt they will be very pleasant in the summer. However we are seeing quite a good slice of this country at the Government’s expense, and at present are not in the line, so we must not grumble.

December the ninth 1917.
B.E.F. ITALY.

Still we have received no mail. I have never felt so cut off before. I know some letters are on the way, for they have been seen, but they get hung in a most extraordinary way. I shall be glad when proper postal arrangements are made. It is miserable having no news of home.

I am well; but several of the officers and men are ill owing no doubt to the extreme cold, unaccustomed way of living and strange food and wine.

We are still on the move, and have seen a good deal of the country. It is a strenuous time for the men and horses. The horses are fine. The further they have to go the better they look. Since we left France I have only lost two. All the other batteries have lost at least a dozen or more, and they have mange, which we have escaped so far. I tell others it is owing to good management but really it is due to good luck.

I am enjoying myself very much. My only regret is that I have not more time to get away and visit interesting places, which we are near, and to do some reading about them and the history of Italy.

We have been buying some excellent turkeys and ducks, but the prices are already going up rapidly. The inhabitants soon find that mess secretaries and the troops will pay almost anything for food.

It has been severely cold, frost day and night.

I have paid the men in lire this afternoon. I hope they won’t spend it all in vino, and cause trouble.