THE ROARING TWENTIES

THE ROARING TWENTIES
The Roaring Twenties was the period of Western society that witnessed many Political, Economic and Social changes. It was a period of sustained economic prosperity especially in the United States and Western Europe, particularly in major cities such Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, London Paris, Sydney, Paris and Berlin. Jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined the modern look for British and American women, and Art Deco peaked. This era saw the large-scale development and use of motor transport, telephones, motion pictures, radio and electrical appliances. Aviation became a business. Nations saw rapid industrial and economic growth, accelerated consumer demand and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focussed on sporting and film star celebrities. The sports stadiums and cinemas were filled with enthusiastic fans. In most major democratic states women won the right to vote.
These social and cultural features known as the Roaring Twenties began in all the leading metropolitan centres, then spread widely in the aftermath of the Great War. The United States gained dominance in world finance. When Germany could no longer afford to pay the Great War reparations to the United Kingdom, France and the other Allied Powers, the United States came up with the Dawes Plan. Wall Street invested heavily in Germany, which paid its reparations to the relevant countries, who in turn used the dollars to pay off their war debts to Washington. By the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade known, especially in Germany, as the ”Golden Twenties”. The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a feeling of novelty associated with modernity and a break with traditions. Everything seemed possible through modern technology which brought “modernity” to a large part of the population.
However, in Britain especially, work was difficult to find for many discharged military personnel. They were dismayed that the country did not provide the “society fit for heroes” as promised. Many of the heroes who volunteered or were conscripted to fight for King and Country found their peacetime reward was unemployment, hunger and despair. It should have been so simple. The country had been able to spend millions of pounds a day to defeat the Germans, but only a fraction of that amount would be needed to fulfil Lloyd George’s promise that his coalition government would make Britain “a land fit for heroes to live in.” However, there was not any money forth-coming to put industry on its feet and many returning servicemen, willing to work, were forced to suffer poverty as no work was available.
The Roaring Twenties can be summed up by breaking down the various areas of “modernity” as follows :-
The Economy
The Roaring Twenties saw great economic growth and widespread prosperity which was driven by the recovery from the wartime devastation. The end of wartime production, at first, caused a brief but deep recession throughout the world. Quickly, however, the American and Canadian economies revived as returning soldiers re-entered the work force. Civilian spending during the war had been virtually non-existent other than for the essential commodities. The American Economy benefitted the most because they successfully made the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy, which then allowed them to extend loans for a European boom. The United States became the richest nation in the world, its industry was based on mass production which then created a consumer society. The 1919-1920 post Great War ended when munitions factories were retooled to produce consumer goods. However, some sectors of industry remained stagnant, especially farming and coal mining. By contrast, European economies had a more difficult post-war readjustment and only began to flourish about 1924.
New Products and Technologies
Mass production made technology affordable to the middle class, but not necessarily to the working class.
Motor Transport
The automotive industry rapidly grew during the 1920s. Before the war, cars were a luxury affordable only to wealthy people with money. The automobile industry originated in Europe in the late 19th century but the United States completely dominated the world industry for the first half of the 20th century through the development of mass production techniques.
In Europe the main fore-runners of the automobile industry during the Roaring Twenties were Britain and France. In Britain, William R. Morris and his competitor Herbert Austin had resumed production of their low-priced cars which they had been developing before the Great War. The three British firms of Austin, Morris and Singer controlled 75% of the British Market in 1929. André-Gustave Citreon and Louis Renault had resumed production of their vehicles in France.
In America, The Ford Motor Company was one of the first automobile manufacturers to introduce the American innovation of full-scale mass production. The process combined precision, standardisation and interchangeability of components, synchronisation and continuity. The first of the “Big Three” motor manufacturers, the Ford Motor Company inspired rival companies to adopt their manufacturing procedures. General Motors Corporation (GM) was the second of the “Big Three”, who became the world’s largest automobile firm and the largest privately owned manufacturing enterprise in the world. It was founded in 1908 by William C. Durant. The third member of the ”Big Three” automobile manufacturers was created at the same time. When the Maxwell Motoring Company failed in the 1921 depression, Walter P. Chrysler, formally of General Motors, was called in to reorganise the company. In 1925 it became the Chrysler Corporation and grew to major proportions with the acquisition of the Dodge Brothers company in 1928. In America alone after the Wall Street crash, motor vehicle production declined from a peak of more than five million in 1929 to a low of just over one million in 1932. It rose again slowly but had not reached its 1929 figure at the outbreak of the Second World War.
Aviation
The 1920s saw milestones in aviation that seized the world’s attention. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh rose to fame with the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight. He took off from Roosevelt Field in New York and landed on the Paris-Le Bourget Airport. It took Lindbergh thirty three and a half hours to cross the Atlantic Ocean. His aircraft, the Spirit of St. Louis, was a custom built, single engine, single seat monoplane, and was designed by aeronautical engineer Donald A. Hall. In Britain Amy Johnson was the heroine, as the first women to fly alone from Britain to Australia. Flying solo or with her husband, Jim Mollison, she set numerous long distance records during the 1930s.
Biological Progress-Penicillin
For decades biologists had been at work on the medicine that became penicillin. In 1928, Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovered a substance which killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. In 1929, he called the new substance penicillin. His publications were largely ignored at first but it became a significant antibiotic in the 1930s. In 1930 Cecil George Paine, a pathologist at the Royal Infirmary in Sheffield, attempted to use penicillin to treat eruptions in beard follicles but was unsuccessful. Moving on to a gonococcal infection in infants, he achieved the first recorded cure with penicillin on the 25th November 1930. He then cured four additional patients of eye infections but failed to cure a fifth
Radio and Television
The British Broadcasting Company, as the BBC was originally called, was formed on the 18th October 1922, by a leading group of wireless manufacturers including Marconi. Daily broadcasting by the BBC began in Marconi’s London studio in the Strand on the 14th November 1922. John Reith, a 33 year-old Scottish engineer, was appointed General Manager of the BBC at the end of 1922. There were no rules, standards or established guidelines to follow, but with the help of Peter Eckersley, they innovated and experimented and the service began to expand. It wasn’t long before radio could be heard across the nation.
In America, radio became the first broadcasting medium. Radios were expensive, but their mode of entertainment proved revolutionary. Radio advertising became the grandstand for mass marketing. Its economic importance led to the mass culture that has dominated society since this period. During the ”Golden Age of Radio”, radio programming was as varied as the later Television programming.
The 1920s saw numerous inventors continue the work on television, but programmes did not reach the public until the eve of the Second World War, and few saw any before the late 1940s. In July 1927, John Logie Baird transmitted a long-distance television signal over 438 miles (705 km) of telephone line between London and Glasgow. Baird transmitted the world’s first long-distance television pictures to the Central Hotel at Glasgow Central Station. He then set up the Baird Television Development Company Ltd, which in 1928 made the first transatlantic television transmission, from London to Hartsdale, New York, and the first television programme for the BBC.
Cinema Replaces American Vaudeville and British Music Hall
The cinema boomed in the 1920s, producing a new form of entertainment that virtually ended the old vaudeville theatrical shows. Watching a film was cheap and accessible. Since the early 1910s, lower-priced cinema successfully competed with vaudeville. Many vaudeville performers and other theatrical personalities were recruited by the film industry, lured by greater salaries and less arduous working conditions. In October 1927, the sound film The Jazz Singer turned out to be a smash box office success. It was innovative for its use of sound.
In 1928, the animated short film, Dinner Time was among the first animated sound films. It was followed a few months later by the animated short film Steamboat Willie, the first sound film by the Walt Disney Animation Studios. It was the first commercially successful animated short film and introduced the character Mickey Mouse. Steamboat Willie was the first cartoon to feature a fully post-production soundtrack, which distinguished it from earlier sound cartoons. It became the most popular cartoon of its day.
The introduction of the sound film eliminated vaudeville’s last major advantage. Vaudeville was in sharp financial decline and the prestigious Orpheum Circuit, a chain of vaudeville and movie theatres, was absorbed by a new film studio.
British music hall was similar American vaudeville, featuring rousing songs and comic acts. Music hall was a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian era beginning around 1850 and lasting until 1960. It involved a mixture of popular songs, comedy, speciality acts and variety entertainment. The term is derived from a type of theatre or venue in which such entertainment took place. While in the United Kingdom the term ”vaudeville” referred to more working-class types of entertainment that would have been termed “burlesque” in America.
New Infrastructure and Society Comprising:-
The new automobile dominance led to greater mobility. Cars and trucks needed road construction, new bridges and regular highway maintenance. New industries were introduced to make tyres, glass for windscreens and windows and refining fuel. Servicing and repair industries abounded for the millions of cars and trucks. Tourism gained an enormous boost with hotels, restaurants and curio shops benefitting.
Electricity, Telephones and Housing Facilities
In America and Europe, most industries switched from coal power to electricity. Most homes, especially in the towns and cities were lit by electricity. Telephone lines were being also being strung across both continents of America and Europe. Indoor plumbing and modern sewage systems were installed for the first time in many houses.
Art Deco
Art Deco was the style of design and architecture that marked the era. Originating in Europe, it spread to the rest of Western Europe and North America towards the mid-1920s. In America, the style of architecture featured strong geometric shapes. The most famous building featuring the Art Deco design was the Chrysler Building in New York. Architecture styles also reflected the age of the steel formed skyscrapers with exterior cladding and complete with lifts and escalators.
Suffrage
With some exceptions, many countries extended women’s voting rights. These democracies included the United States, Canada, Great Britain and most major European countries as well as India. This influenced many governments by increasing the number of voters. Politicians responded by spending more attention on issues of concern to women, especially peace, public health, education and the status of children. On the whole, women voted much like their menfolk, except they were more interested in peace.
Lost Generation
The Lost Generation was composed of young American people who came out of the Great War disillusioned and cynical about the world. Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein were some of the expatriates, living in Paris who wrote novels and short stories expressing their resentment towards the materialism and individualism rampant during this era. In England, the bright young things were young aristocrats and socialites whose actions were well covered by the gossip columns of the London tabloids.
Fashion and Clothing
In America, well dressed men wore well-tailored suits, silk shirts and handkerchiefs, trilby hats, bow ties, black leather patent shoes and spats. Women’s fashion included Fringed Beaded Flapper dresses with pleats and gathers, short fringed skirts with a hemline above the knees. They also included long strands of pearl beads, cigarette holders, feather headbands and boas. Silk, woollen or rayon stockings were held up by garters.

Flappers and Sexuality
Flappers were light-hearted, female nonconformists who were eager to try new styles of dress and challenged the traditional ideas of behaviour by wearing make-up, drinking and smoking in public and acting in an unladylike fashion. Flappers wore short bobbed hair, make-up such as lipstick and rouge, short fringed skirts, bright coloured sweaters and scarves.
Everything changed in the Roaring Twenties where sex was revolutionised on the Silver Screen with the characters acting out their parts using widespread use of the motorcar and performed by steamy actors and actresses. Everyone, it seemed was talking about sex, it was on the minds of young people and the older generation. In the colleges of America, they were full of young women and men who admitted freely that their weekends were full of “petting parties.”
Dance, Music and the Jazz Age
The new type of music called jazz developed in the United States and inspired new crazy moves. New dances evolved in the Roaring Twenties, or the Jazz Age, as it was known, included the Charleston, the Black Bottom, the Shimmy Turkey Trot, Cake Walk, Bunny Hop, the Lindy Hop and the American Tango. The old dances such as the waltz and the foxtrot were also popular. Jazz, ragtime and the music from Broadway musicals dominated the era. Louis Armstrong was one of most popular Jazz musicians of the era and played his famous solos in the nightclubs of Chicago. Louis ”Satchmo” Armstrong is credited with putting Jazz on the musical map. Other famous Jazz musicians and singers include Dizzie Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald, Josephine Baker and Duke Ellington.
American Prohibition and Gangsters
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the producing, importation, transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. The Prohibition Gangsters were violent mobsters who extended their illegal activities in the 1920s through the sale of intoxicating liquor which led to organised crime. The names of the most famous gangsters in the Roaring Twenties were Al ”Scarface” Capone, George ”Bugs” Moran, Charles ”Lucky” Luciano, Dutch Schultz and Jack ”Legs” Diamond.
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The Wall Street Crash of 1929 ended the Roaring Twenties era, and the Great Depression brought years of worldwide gloom and hardship.
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THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1929

THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1929

In Moscow on the 9th February 1929 the Litvinov Protocol was signed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union), Poland, Estonia, Romania and Latvia. Named after the chief Soviet diplomat, Maxim Litvinov, the treaty provided for the immediate implementation of the Kellogg-Briand Pact by the signatories, thereby formally denouncing aggressive warfare as part of national foreign policy. The protocol was registered with the League of Nations, ready for the immediate entry into force of the Treaty of Paris of 27th August 1928.

The Lateran Treaty was signed in Rome on the 11th February 1929, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See (Vatican City), which settled the “Roman Question” and normalised relations between the Vatican and Italy. The Italian parliament ratified the treaty on the 7th June 1929.

Herbert Hoover became the 31st President of the United States on the 4th March 1929. The Great Depression was the central issue of his presidency starting with the Wall Street Crash of October 1929. There were occasional upswings but more frequent downswings until the economy verged on disaster in 1931-33 along with most of the industrial world. Upon taking office Hoover believed it would not be too long before poverty was banished from the United States. Having seen the fruits of prosperity brought about by technological progress, many shared Hoover’s optimism and the already strong stock market climbed even higher on Hoover’s inaugaration. But within months of his taking office, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the worldwide economy began to spiral downward into the Great Depression.

In Rome on the 7th June 1929, the Italian parliament ratified the Lateran Treaty making the Vatican City an independent sovereign state. The government, led by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, agreed to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact came into effect on the 24th July 1929. The pact had been signed by all the major countries in Paris on the 27th August 1928 where they renounced the use of war and called for peaceful settlements of any future disputes. As a practical matter the Kellogg-Briand Pact did not live up to all of its aims. It did not end war or stop the rise of militarism and was unable to keep the international peace in the following years owing to its lack of influence on foreign policy. It had erased the distinction between war and peace because, in future, the signatories began to wage war without declaring.

The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed in Geneva on the 27th July 1929. The Hague Regulations of 1899 and 1907, concerning the treatment of prisoners of war, revealed deficiencies during the Great War. Some of the deficiencies were partly overcome by special agreements made between opposing forces in Berne in 1917 and 1918. The International Red Cross Conference of 1921, submitted their draft proposals to the Geneva Convention of 1929, expressing concern over the treatment of prisoners of war. These proposals were accepted and completed the Hague Regulations and entered into force on the 19th June 1931.

In Paris on the 31st August 1929 the Young Plan was finalised during the renegotiation Germany’s Great War repatriation payments. A new committee, chaired by the American Owen Young, met to revise the Dawes Plan of 1924. The plan reduced the amount due from Germany to $26,350,000,000 (United States) to be paid over a 58.5 years, which was accepted with minor changes and went into effect on the 1st September 1930.

When the stock market on Wall Street in the United States crashed on the 29th October 1929 the Great Depression began. The impact on the industrial world was dire. In Germany millions were thrown out of work and several major banks collapsed. Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party. They promised to repudiate the Treaty of Versailles, strengthen the economy and provide jobs.

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THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1928

THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1928

In Russia on the 11th January 1928 Leon Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata, a small town in Kazakhstan, a month after he had been expelled from the Communist Party by Josef Stalin. The following year he left the Soviet Union, never to return. He spent the next few years in various countries, Turkey, France, Norway and finally Mexico He continued to urge revolution in his writing, despite the threats on his life during his time in exile.
In China, the Jinan Incident which began on the 3rd May 1928, was a limited armed conflict between the Republic of China and the Imperial Japanese Army. Jinan is the capital of East China’s Shandong province and the Japanese had a force there ever since the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 primarily over control of Korea. Relations between the two nations were not very good and the Japanese commander moved troops into the Jinan area and in the meantime Chinese troops withdrew from the city on 30th April 1928. The situation remained tense but reasonably quiet until a minor clash occurred on the 3rd May 1928. Twelve Japanese civilians were killed and leaders on both sides agreed to a truce and ceasefire. Despite the Japanese consul general’s push for peace the Japanese military felt they could not let the “insult” to Japanese honour to go unpunished. When Japan issued a set of demands to China, they were so onerous the Chinese had no choice but to refuse and hostilities began. The Japanese forces pushed Chinese troops from the area and inflicted thousands of casualties as well as killing over 2000 civilians. The conflict ended on the 11th May 1928 with a Japanese victory and the Japanese army occupied Jinan until March 1929.
In China the Huanggutun Incident was a successful attempt by the Japanese Army to assassinate the Chinese Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin by blowing up his train. The assassination which occurred on the 4th June 1928 takes its name from the Huanggutun train station Shenyang where the attack took place in North West China. Following the 1911 Xinhai Revolution three cliques were supported by foreign powers in China. The Soviet Union backed the Kuomintang group which would later go on to rule all of China under Chiang Kai-shek. The United States and most of the European powers supported the Zhili faction. Japan threw its weight behind Zhang Zuolin’s Fengtian Army, where it had political and economic interests in the development of the region especially its almost untouched mineral wealth. The Japanese Army was responsible for the security of the South Manchurian Railway and with Japanese investment being increased in Manchuria Zhang guaranteed support. The Imperial Japanese Army also helped Zhang militarily including putting down an anti-Fengtian uprising. Japan hoped for a future in which it occupied Manchuria in partnership with Zhang. However, Zhang was only interested in gaining Japanese support to secure his grip on the territory he already controlled. Relationship between the two parties began to deteriorate. Zhang opened talks with both United States and Britain giving both nations a foothold in the economic and trade opportunities to be had in Manchuria. These opportunities had previously only been open to Japan. Unconvinced of Zhang’s ability to maintain control of Manchuria Japan chose to remove Zhang and replace him with a puppet leader. On The evening of the 3rd June 1928, Zhang boarded a train in Beijing, where he was closely guarded by loyal Fengtian troops. A bridge a few miles east of Huanggutun train station in the suburbs of Shenyang was selected for the assassination as it was particularly vulnerable to attack by outside forces. A bomb was placed on the bridge. Zhang’s train passed over the bridge at dawn on the 4th June 1928 at which point the bomb exploded. Several of Zhang’s staff were instantly killed and Zhang died of his injuries a few hours later. Zhang’s son, Zhang Xueliang, emerged as the surprise new leader of the Fengtian clique. Keen to avoid conflict with Japan the new leader began talks with Ching Kai-shek’s Nationalists. It was several more years before the Japanese Army was able to mount another attempt to establish a puppet leadership in Manchuria.
The Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 was a treaty signed between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia) on the 2nd August 1928. Emperor Zewditu I ruled Ethiopia at the time of the treaty. But it was 36 year old Ras Tafari Makkonnen who represented the government of Ethiopia. Tafari, while still in his minority, was heir apparent. Within two months, on the 7th October 1928, Ras Tafari was proclaimed Regent. A little over two years later, on 2nd November 1930, Zewditu died and Tafari was proclaimed Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. In 1926 Italy and Britain attempted a joint economical exploitation of Ethiopia. The Italians planned to build a railway and the British hoped to construct mighty water works for irrigating the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. British public opinion turned against the water works scheme and it was cancelled. This left the Italians in the lurch. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini enlisted the aid of King Victor Emmanuel’s cousin, the Duke of Abruzzi, to bring his influence to bear and promote the railway scheme. In 1928 the Duke and his suite crossed the Mediterranean, sailed down the coast of Africa, and then headed inland to Ethiopia and its remote capital Addis Ababa. The Duke gave Raf Tafari a large Isotta Fraschini Limousine a luxurious Italian product. They declared a 20 year friendship pact between the two nations, access to the sea for Ethiopia, a road for Italy and an agreement to settle future disputes through the League of Nations. Both sides were at cross-purposes when they approached the Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928. Mussolini wanted the treaty to be an economic access that allowed Italy to penetrate Ethiopia. Meanwhile, Ras Tafari never intended to allow the Italian road from the sea to be built. He considered the road from the coastal town of Aseb to be a natural invasion route.
In Paris on the 27th August 1928 the Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed by the major powers of the world including Germany, France and the United States of America. Most other states signed up soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S. the treaty renounced the use of war and called for the peaceful settlement of disputes. The pact was named after its authors United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The pact was effective from the 24th July 1929.
The Soviet Union launched the first five-year plan with a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Josef Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism. It was implemented between October 1928 and November 1932. The Soviet Union entered into a series of five year plans which began under Stalin’s rule. He launched what would be described as a ”revolution from above” to improve the Soviet Union’s domestic policy. More importantly it centred on the rapid industrialisation and the combined collection of all agriculture. His plan was to effectively industrialise the economy of the Soviet Union by concentrating on heavy industry. His planning was ineffective and unrealistic given the shortest amount of time to meet the desired goals. The central and most important part of the plan came between 1928 and 1932 which was the most crucial time for Russian industrialisation. The largest success of the five year plan, however, was the Soviet Union began its journey to become an economic and industrial superpower. Stalin declared the plan a total success at the beginning of 1933 by stating that the creation of several heavy industries, as proof, where none had existed before.
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THE INTER – WAR PERIOD 1927

THE INTER – WAR PERIOD 1927

The long Chinese Civil War began on the 12th April 1927 and was a conflict between Chinese Communists and Chinese Nationalists. The force loyal to the Chinese government was called the Kuomintang (KMT), and they fought the Communist Party of China (CPC). The war finally ended in 1950 which resulted in the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in mainland China and the Republic of China in Taiwan. The Civil War carried on sporadically until the latter part of 1937, when the two parties came together to form the Second United Front in order to battle the Japanese invasion.
The Treaty of Jeddah was signed on the 20th May 1927, between the United Kingdom and Ibn Saud. It recognised the independence of Ibn Saud and sovereignty over what was then known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. The two regions were unified into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. In return Ibn Saud agreed to stop his forces from attacking and harassing neighbouring British protectorates. The Treaty superseded the 1915 Treaty of Darin.
In Poland on the 7th June 1927, Pyotr Volkov the Soviet ambassador to Poland, was assassinated at the railway station in Warsaw. He was shot by 19 year old Boris Kowerda an exiled Russian youth, in retaliation for having signed the death warrants in 1918 for Tsar Nicholas II and the Russian Imperial Family.
In Russia on 12th November 1927 Joseph Stalin ousted Leon Trotsky from the Communist Party, effectively ending the career of his greatest political rival. Stalin would later force Trotsky into exile and order his assassination. Trotsky served under Vladimar Ilyich Lenin, and was one of the heroes of the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 that brought Russia under communist rule. As Lenin’s health began to rapidly deteriorate in 1921, Trotsky was outmanoeuvred by his political rivals, Josef Stalin, Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev. His rivals gained control of the Politburo and Central Committee. Following Lenin’s death in 1924 Stalin emerged as the leader of the Soviet government. Stalin removed Trotsky from his role as war commissar in 1925 and from the Politburo the following year. Trotsky aligned himself with Zinviev and Kamenev, who had split from Stalin in 1926. Stalin expelled Trotsky and Zinoviev from the Communist Party on the 12th November 1927. A month later, Stalin expelled ninety eight of their supporters.
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THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1926

THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1926

The Greek, Lieutenant General Theodoros Pangalos was a soldier, politician and dictator who declared a state of emergency on the 3rd January 1926 and assumed dictatorial powers. A distinguished staff officer and an anti-royalist, Pangalos played a leading role in the September 1922 revolt that deposed King Constantine I and in the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic. In June 1925 he had staged a bloodless coup and his assumption of power was recognised by the National Assembly which named him Prime Minister. At a rigged election on the 4th April 1926 Pangalos had himself elected President. His political and diplomatic inability soon became apparent. On the economic front Pangalos attempted to devalue the currency by ordering paper notes cut in half. He conceded too many rights to the Yugoslav trade in Thessaloniki but, worst of all, he embroiled Greece in the so-called War of the Stray Dog, harming Greece’s already strained international relations. Soon many of the officers who had helped him come to power decided that he had to be removed. On the 29th August 1926 a counter-coup led by General Georgios Kondylis deposed Pangalos and Pavlos Kountouriotis returned as president. Pangalos was imprisoned for two years in the Izzeddin Fortress, and after his release he never regained the popularity he had before the coup and never again played a role in Greek politics.
In occupied Germany the British and Belgian troops began to leave Cologne on the 31st January 1926. At the end of the Great War, French, British, Belgian and United States troops occupied the Rhineland. This was agreed as part of the Armistice signed on the 11th November 1918. The details, including zones of occupation, were worked out by the French Marshal Ferdinand Foch and the British and Belgians were allocated the city of Cologne and the surrounding areas. British troops first crossed the border into Germany on the 2nd December 1918. The occupation was originally intended to last for fifteen years with the number of Allied troops reduced in stages after five and ten years. However, some British troops stayed on in Weisbaden until the 30th June 1930.
The Treaty of Berlin was signed by Germany and the Soviet Union on the 24th April 1926, which pledged neutrality if either country was attacked by a third party within the next five years. The treaty was signed in Berlin on the 29th June 1926, and it went into effect on the same day.
In Paris on the 25th May 1926, Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Vasilyevich Petliura was assassinated by Russian Jew Sholom Schwartzbard when he pulled out a gun and shot him five times. Petliura was a politician and journalist who had been Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Army and the President of the Ukrainian National Republic. He led Ukraine’s struggle for independence following the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917. Following the Russian Revolution, and the outbreak of hostilities between the Ukraine and Soviet Russia, Petliura lost most of his army to the Bolsheviks and by early 1924 had settled in Paris. During his years in exile in Paris he established and edited the Ukrainian language newspaper Tryzub promoting Ukrainian culture. He was also head of government-in-exile of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. After hearing that Petliura was relocated in Paris, Schwartzbard plotted his assassination as he blamed Petliura for the loss of his family during the 1919 pogroms

Germany joined the League of Nations on the 8th September 1926 following the Locarno Conference of October 1925. The conference consisted of a series of treaties that allowed Germany to become a member of the League Council, for which it had previously applied. In 1924, the newly appointed foreign minister of Germany Gustav Stresemann adopted a new policy toward the League of Nations which previous governments had rejected. The rejection had been on the grounds that the victors of the Great War created difficulties in order to suppress the defeated Germans.

In Japan, Hirohito became the 124th Emperor on the 25th December 1926, following the death of his father Taisho. At the start of his reign, Japan was already one of the great powers. They had the ninth largest economy in the world, the third largest navy and was one of four permanent members of the League of Nations. However, the first part of Hirohito’s reign took place against a background of financial crisis and increasing military power within the government. The Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy held veto power over the formation of the cabinet.

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The Inter-War Period 1925

The Inter-War Period 1925

With the economy improving in January 1925, Adolf Hitler’s opportunities for political agitation was limited. In a meeting with Heinrich Held, the Prime Minister of Bavaria, on the 4th January 1925, Hitler agreed to respect the state’s authority and promised that he would seek political power only through the democratic process. Although the NSDAP was banned in Bavaria following the failed Beer Hall Putsch the meeting paved the way for the ban on the NSDAP to be lifted on the 16th February 1925. However, after an inflammatory speech he gave on the 27th February 1925, Hitler was barred from public speaking by the Bavarian authorities, a ban that remained in place until 1927. To advance his political ambitions in spite of the ban Hitler appointed Gregor & Otto Strasser and Joseph Goebbels to organise and grow the NSDAP in northern Germany.

Adolf Hitler formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on the 7th April 1925. Whilst in prison and shortly before he was eligible for parole the Bavarian government attempted to have him deported back to Austria. The Austrian federal chancellor rejected the request on the grounds that his service in the German Army made his Austrian citizenship void.

On the 12th May 1925, retired Field Marshal Paul Von Hindenburg took office as President of Germany. Presidential elections were held in Germany on the 29th March 1925, with a second run-off on the 26th April 1925. They were the first direct elections for the President of the Reich, Germany’s head of state during the 1919-1933 Weimar Republic. Following the death of the first President, Friedrich Ebert, in February 1925, the Weimar constitution required that his successor be elected by the “whole German people”. The first President Ebert had been elected indirectly by the National Assembly. Hindenburg was elected as the second president of Germany in the second round of voting.

On the 18th July 1925 Adolf Hitler’s autobiographical manifest Mein Kampf was published. It was a blueprint of his agenda for a Third Reich and a clear exposition of the nightmare that would envelope Europe from 1939 to 1945. The book sold 9,473 copies in its first year.

During October 1925 the terms of the Treaty of Locarno were negotiated and finally signed on the1st December 1926 by Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy. The treaty recognised defeated Germany’s borders with France and Belgium and that Germany would never again go to war with the other countries. However, Britain, Italy and Belgium undertook to assist France in case future German troops marched into the de-militarised Rhineland. The treaty paved the way for Germany’s admission to the League of Nations in 1926.

After his release from prison in December 1924, Adolf Hitler honed his oratorical skills and worked for the advancement of the Nazi Party. Such advance was slow throughout the years 1925 to 1929 because of a fairly stable financial period in Europe.

In Italy, Benito Mussolini gradually dismantled all democratic institutions and by 1925, he had declared himself dictator taking the title “Il Duce” (“The Leader”). To his credit, he carried out an extensive public works programme and reduced unemployment making him very popular with the people.

The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements signed in London on the 1st December 1925, and had been negotiated at Locarno in Switzerland in October 1925. The treaties settled the borders of Western Europe and normalised relations between Germany and the Allied powers. It also stated that Germany would never go to war with the other countries. Locarno divided borders in Europe into two categories. The western borders were guaranteed by Locarno treaties, and the eastern borders of Germany with Poland, which were open for revision.

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THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1924

THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1924

In Germany, following Adolf Hitler’s arrest and charge for high treason in November 1923, a report by the Bavarian authorities in 1924 stated that his service in the Bavarian Army came about because of an administrative error. As an Austrian citizen he should have been returned to Austria. At the outbreak of the Great War Hitler was living in Munich and voluntarily enlisted in the Bavarian Army and, therefore, he was to allowed to keep his German citizenship. He was decorated for bravery and received the Black Wound Badge whilst serving on the Western Front.

Vladimir Lenin, the architect of the Bolshevik Revolution and the first leader of the Soviet Union, died on the 21st January 1924, of a brain haemorrhage at the age of 54. Upon Lenin’s death his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum in the Red Square just outside the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honour. Fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded him as leader of the Soviet Union.

On the 1st February 1924 Britain formally extended diplomatic recognition to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union). However, Anglo-Soviet relationships during the 1920’s was marked with distrust.

The trial of Adolf Hitler began in February 1924 and was conducted before the special People’s Court in Munich and Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the NSDAP. On the 1st April 1924, Hitler was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment at Landsberg Prison and received friendly treatment from the prison guards. He was allowed mail from supporters and regular visits by party comrades. While at Landsberg Hitler dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) to his deputy Rudolf Hess. The book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race. The main theory centred on Aryan superiority and Jewish inferiority. Some passages implied genocide.

In Italy, general elections were held on the 6th April 1924. They were held under the Acerbo Law which was approved by Parliament in November 1923. This law stated that the party with the largest share of the votes would automatically receive two-thirds of the seats in Parliament providing they received over 25% of the vote. The Nationalists of Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party used intimidating tactics, resulting in a landslide victory and subsequent two-thirds majority. This was the last free election in Italy until 1946.

In Italy on the 10th June 1924, the Unitary Socialist Party leader Giacomo Matteotti was kidnapped and assassinated by Fascist Blackshirts. Mussolini ordered a cover-up in order to avert a coup which could have swept Fascism away.

The Dawes Plan was a report accepted by the Allies and Germany on the 16th August 1924. On the initiative of the British and U.S. governments a committee of experts headed by American financier, Charles G. Dawes, produced a report on the question of German reparations under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany. The plan provided for an end to the Allied occupation, and a staggered payment plan for Germany’s payment of war reparations. The plan proved to be unworkable as it was only in interim plan, and in 1929 the Young Plan was adopted to replace it.

On the 18th August 1924, France and Belgium began withdrawing their occupying troops from the Ruhr industrial area of Germany. Ten years after the August 1914 declaration of war, cultural demobilization was finally able to begin, alongside a move away from violence in international relations. The Lacarno Treaties of 1925 established redefined German borders.

Adolf Hitler was released from prison on the 20th December 1924 after he had been pardoned by the Bavarian Supreme Court despite the state prosecution’s objections. Including time spent on remand Hitler served just over one year in prison.

On the 31st December 1924, the Italian Blackshirt leaders met with Mussolini and gave him an ultimatum, crush the opposition or they would do so without him. Mussolini decided to drop all trappings of democracy.

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