THE INTER – WAR PERIOD 1927
The long Chinese Civil War began on the 12th April 1927 and was a conflict between Chinese Communists and Chinese Nationalists. The force loyal to the Chinese government was called the Kuomintang (KMT), and they fought the Communist Party of China (CPC). The war finally ended in 1950 which resulted in the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in mainland China and the Republic of China in Taiwan. The Civil War carried on sporadically until the latter part of 1937, when the two parties came together to form the Second United Front in order to battle the Japanese invasion.
The Treaty of Jeddah was signed on the 20th May 1927, between the United Kingdom and Ibn Saud. It recognised the independence of Ibn Saud and sovereignty over what was then known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. The two regions were unified into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. In return Ibn Saud agreed to stop his forces from attacking and harassing neighbouring British protectorates. The Treaty superseded the 1915 Treaty of Darin.
In Poland on the 7th June 1927, Pyotr Volkov the Soviet ambassador to Poland, was assassinated at the railway station in Warsaw. He was shot by 19 year old Boris Kowerda an exiled Russian youth, in retaliation for having signed the death warrants in 1918 for Tsar Nicholas II and the Russian Imperial Family.
In Russia on 12th November 1927 Joseph Stalin ousted Leon Trotsky from the Communist Party, effectively ending the career of his greatest political rival. Stalin would later force Trotsky into exile and order his assassination. Trotsky served under Vladimar Ilyich Lenin, and was one of the heroes of the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 that brought Russia under communist rule. As Lenin’s health began to rapidly deteriorate in 1921, Trotsky was outmanoeuvred by his political rivals, Josef Stalin, Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev. His rivals gained control of the Politburo and Central Committee. Following Lenin’s death in 1924 Stalin emerged as the leader of the Soviet government. Stalin removed Trotsky from his role as war commissar in 1925 and from the Politburo the following year. Trotsky aligned himself with Zinviev and Kamenev, who had split from Stalin in 1926. Stalin expelled Trotsky and Zinoviev from the Communist Party on the 12th November 1927. A month later, Stalin expelled ninety eight of their supporters.