THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1921
In February 1921, and already highly effective at crowd manipulation, Adolf Hitler spoke to a crowd of over 6,000 people. To publicise the meeting, two truckloads of party supporters drove around Munich waving swastika flags and distributing leaflets. Hitler soon gained a reputation for his rowdy speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians and especially against Marxists and Jews.
The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga) was signed in Riga on the 18th March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine. The treaty ended the Polish – Soviet War. The treaty established the Polish – Soviet borders until the Second World War where they were later redrawn during the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.
In June 1921, while Adolf Hitler and Dietrich Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the NSDAP in Munich. Hitler and Eckart had met in 1919. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Social Party (DSP). Hitler returned to Munich on the 11th July 1921 and angrily tendered his resignation. However, he announced he would re-join on the condition that he would replace Anton Drexler as party chairman, and that the party would remain in Munich. Drexler was the Party Chairman who had encouraged Hitler to join the party in 1919. The committee agreed, and he re-joined the party on the 26th July 1921. In the following days, Hitler spoke to several packed houses using all his oratorical skills gaining thunderous applause. His strategy proved successful, and at a special party congress on the 29th July 1921, he was granted absolute powers as party chairman, replacing Drexler by a vote of 533 to 1. Hitler’s vitriolic beer hall speeches began to attracting regular audiences. He became adept at using populist themes and used his personal magnetism and an understanding of crowd psychology to his advantage while engaged in public speaking. Early followers included Rudolf Hess, former air force ace Hermann Göring, and army captain Ernst Röhm. Röhm became head of the Nazis’ paramilitary organisation, the (SA ”Stormtroopers”), which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. The group, financed with funds channelled from wealthy industrialists, introduced Hitler to the idea of a Jewish conspiracy, linking international finance with Bolshevism.
The U.S./German and the U.S/Austrian Peace Treaty were both signed on the 25th August 1921, marking the formal end of war between the two states and the USA. These treaties were signed because the USA had not ratified the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Saint-German.
On the 29th August 1921, the U.S./Hungarian Peace Treaty was signed marking the formal end of the state of war between the two states. The United States had not ratified the Treaty of Trianon hence the separate peace treaty.