December 1915

On the 3rd December, General Joffre was appointed Commander-Chief of the French armies. He had promoted from Chief General Staff, a post he had held since 28th July 1911.


In Mesopotamia on the 3rd December, the British forces reached Kut, after retreating from Ctesiphon. By the 5th December, Kut had been placed in a state of defence and the siege of Kut began on 7th December. The army of the Ottoman Empire besieged the British and British Indian forces.


On Gallipoli on the 8th December, regional Commander-in–Chief, Sir Charles Monro recommended a general retreat from Suvla and Anzac Bays. Lord Kitchener gave confirmation to Monro’s recommendation.


On the Italian front, the Forth Battle of Isonzo ended on the 10th December.


On the 15th December Sir John French stood down as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France.


The Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac Bays in the Gallipoli Peninsular on the 19th December and all forces were completed evacuated on the 20th December.


On the 19th December, Sir Douglas Haig succeeded Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France.


On the 23rd December, Roland Leighton died of wounds in a field hospital near Louvencourt. He was shot through the stomach by a sniper. He was due to go home on leave to marry his fiancée, Vera Brittain. Whilst waiting in a hotel on the south coast of England she was expecting a call from Leighton to say he was in the country. The call she received was from his mother to say he had died. Vera Brittain survived the war, eventually married, and had two children, one of whom is Shirley Williams, a peer of the Liberal Democrat Party.

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