War Diary of 9th Canadian Artillery Brigade January 1918

CONFIDENTIAL

 

War Diary of 9th CANADIAN ARTILLERY BRIGADE

 

From January 1st 1918 – To January 31st 1918

 

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

G.34.d.95.30.

1.1.18                       Visibility good, with considerable aerial activity on both sides.  Enemy carried out some long distance flights behind our lines during the morning.  Our planes also appeared to be active in his rear areas.  Our 18pdrs fired on movement at various times throughout the day.  The enemy is displaying an aggressive attitude on our right.  For several mornings in succession he has placed a barrage on the front trenches in that sector at 5.00AM.

 

2.1.18                        Poor visibility all day.  There was a certain amount of aerial activity during the morning and one hostile plane appeared to direct fire for hostile battery firing on LOOS.  At about 10.00A.M. seven E.A. patrolled over CITE ST AUGUSTE.  Two of our planes attacked these and brought one down in flames.  A certain amount of movement was again observed today and engaged by our 18pdrs.  the enemy artillery has been more active than usual and did considerable firing on LOOS.  At about 8.00 P.M. the enemy attacked one of our posts.  This attack was covered by a heavy bombardment of our support and communication trenches.  Our S.O.S. Signal went up and artillery responded immediately.  One of our men was killed; no other casualties were reported, and no identifications were obtained.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                              Summary of Events and Information

 

3.1.18                        Operation Order 130-2 was issued today slightly changing the boundaries of the Group Zone and putting the 66th Battery of the 5th C.D.A. which had previously been under the tactical control of this brigade, under the 10th Brigade C.F.A.  Visibility was good and planes were active on both sides.  Considerable sniping was again done by our 18-pdrs.  the enemy’s artillery attempted a certain amount of counter-battery work on our Field Batteries in the vicinity of LOOS CRASSIER and our Heavies in MAROC, practically no damage was done.

 

4.1.18                        Enemy planes particularly active both on forward and rear areas.  One plane appeared to [be] observing for a 5.9 battery firing on one of our Field Gun Positions in G.34.c.  His artillery was active throughout the day particularly on LOOS and in the vicinity of MAROC.  The 45th Battery position was heavily shelled for about two hours.  No casualties were inflicted on personnel or equipment, but several dugout entrances and tunnels were blown in.

 

5.1.18                        The enemy’s attitude was quiet all day.  During the afternoon his planes were fairly active and crossed our lines several times flying at a very low altitude.  His artillery fired considerably on LOOS, LOOS CRASSIER and the HULLUCH Road throughout the day.  Visibility was poor and very little information was obtainable from O.Ps.

 

6.1.18                        Operation Order No 132 issued today with details of raid to be carried out by the 4th C.M.R. Battalion at an early hour on the 7th instant.  The 9th Canadian Artillery Brigade will support the raid.  Additional support will also be provided by the HULLUCH GROUP which is on our left and the 10th Brigade C.F.A. which is on our right.  The visibility was poor all day and little information was obtained by O.P. and no targets of opportunity were engaged.  The enemy’s artillery was again active in the vicinity of LOOS and LOOS CRASSIER.  He fires a great many rounds in this area but as most of the men are in strong cellars and dugouts few casualties are effected.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

7.1.18                        Visibility poor.  The enemy has been less active than usual today probably on account of the poor observation.  A few of his planes were up during the early morning but none crossed our lines.  His artillery fire was light and was chiefly against LOOS and the LENS-BETHUNE Road.  The raid by the 4th C.M.R. arranged to take place on the night of the 6th/7th was postponed.  The raiding party left our trenches at the time arranged and succeeded in getting into the enemy’s wire unobserved.  Their plan was to blow up this wire with a BANGALORE Torpedo and rush through and raid his Sap, returning through the gap blown in the wire.  The officer in charge of the raid found it impossible to set off the torpedo after having worked on it for over two hours and the raid had to be abandoned.

 

8.1.18                        Although the visibility was only fair a great deal of individual movement was observed both in the vicinity of his front trenches and in his rear areas.  Most of the men observed appeared to be wearing  packs, and it is thought that probably an enemy relief is taking place.  The enemy’s artillery was quiet during the night and most of the day.  His Trench Mortars did a certain amount of firing in the early morning.

 

9.1.18                        A large amount of enemy movement was again seen today and men seen appeared to be in marching order.  Our 18pdrs did considerable sniping and one or two hits were observed.  A black dog has been seen several times during the past few days at the southeast corner of BOIS DES DAMES, apparently going to and from dugouts which are suspected to be at this point.  It is probably an enemy messenger dog.  Enemy artillery fire has been normal and the heaviest shelling in the vicinity of LOOS.

 

10.1.18                      Operation Order No 133 was issued today with particulars of a raid to be carried out by the 2nd C.M.R. Battalion at an early hour 12.1.18.  Artillery support is to be provided by the 9th Brigade C.F.A. , with additional support from HULLUCH GROUP, the 91st H.A. Group and the 10th Brigade C.F.A. the purpose of the raid being to obtain prisoners, identification and to inflict casualties on the enemy.  The visibility was fair today and our 18pdrs did considerable sniping, dispersing many small targets and obtaining four observed hits.  The enemy’s artillery was a little more active than usual particularly in the vicinity of LOOS and its approaches.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

11.1.18                      The visibility was poor all day except for a short interval in the morning.  During this period several small parties moving overland were observed and engaged by our 18pdrs.  The enemy’s artillery was active on our rear areas and in the vicinity of LOOS.  A good deal of smoke from enemy trains was observed most of which appeared between the SOCIETIE METALLURGIQUE and VENDIN-le-VIEIL.  Our Trench Mortars have been more active during the past few days than usual doing a good deal of counter-mortar work.  This has apparently been effective as hostile trench mortars have been doing less shelling.

 

12.1.18                      The 2nd C.M.R. Battalion raided the enemy’s trenches shortly after two a.m this morning obtaining two prisoners and inflicting a number of casualties on the enemy; in all, 15 enemy dead were reported to have been seen.  The Infantry state that our Artillery barrage was very satisfactory and that they only had two slight casualties among their men.  A report is attached herewith in connection with this raid by Lieut A.D. MASON, Liaison Officer at LEFT Battalion 2nd C.M.R. (Not with this archive).  The visibility was good all day and several targets of opportunity were fired on by our 18pdrs with good results.  Both the enemy’s and our aeroplanes were very active all day.  The enemy’s artillery was quiet and his retaliation to our barrage in support of the raid this morning was light and scattered.

 

13.1.18                      The enemy’s attitude was quiet today.  During the night 12/13th he appeared nervous and used a great many flares.  His Machine Guns were also quite active throughout the hours of darkness.  There was considerable aerial activity throughout the day and enemy planes crossed our lines on one or two occasions.  Enemy movement was below normal.  A few targets were engaged by our 18pdrs.

 

14.1.18                      The visibility was poor all day and there has been little activity on either side.  One working party was fired on successfully by our 18dprs.  The enemy’s artillery fire was light, his chief shelling being in the vicinity of the 31st and the 66th Batteries.  Operational Order No 134 in connection with a raid to be made by the 5th C.M.R. Battalion, was issued today.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                              Summary of Events and Information

 

15.1.18                      Visibility was poor all day and very little information was obtained by O.Ps.  the 5th C.M.R. Battalion carried out a successful raid last night against the enemy trenches securing prisoners and inflicting a number of casualties.  This raid was accomplished in a remarkably short time and all ranks engaged in the raid got back to our trenches practically uninjured.  The infantry report the Artillery Support as having been splendid.  The enemy’s artillery has been quiet today, his Trench Mortars doing most of the firing.  In response to our barrage in support of last night’s raid, his retaliation was slow and light.

 

16.1.18                      Operation Order Number 135 was issued today.  According to this order the 3rd Canadian Divisional Artillery will probably be relieved and go into rest at an early date.  While at rest the 3rd C.D.A. are to be held as Army Reserve and be ready to move at 12 hours notice to whatever Sector of the line they may be required.  Visibility was good at intervals today and our 18pdrs fired on several movement targets.

The enemy’s artillery was very quiet all day.

 

17.1.18                        The visibility was very poor all day and both ourselves and the enemy quiet.  His artillery did little firing and what was done was all on rear areas.  During the night 16th/17th inst he appeared nervous and fired a great many flares.

 

18.1.18                      Operation Order No 136 was issued today detailing an artillery barrage to be put on by this brigade on the morning of the 19th instant in conjunction with the 3rd Canadian Divisional Trench Mortar Brigade.  Both the enemy’s and our planes were active throughout the day, his planes crossing our lines on two or three occasions.  More than usual movement was seen most of which was engaged by our field guns.  His artillery was quieter than usual in the forward area but was more active in the vicinity of LOOS and the DOUBLE CRASSIER.  The 36th Battery came in for a good deal of the shelling of this area.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

19.1.18                      Operation Order No 137 was issued today re-arranging the zones of the batteries of this brigade.  The visibility was good and aeroplanes were active on both sides.  A good deal of enemy movement was seen and engaged by our 18pdrs.  his artillery was active chiefly in the form of concentrated shoots in the vicinity of our battery positions.  A concentrated Trench Mortar bombardment was put on today by the 3rd Canadian Divisional Trench Mortar brigade assisted by the batteries of the 10th and 9th Brigades C.F.A.  This bombardment appeared to do a good deal of damage to enemy trenches and fortifications.  The enemy’s retaliation to this shoot was weak and did not open until 19 minutes after our bombardment started.

 

20.1.18                      Operation Order No 138 with particulars of the relief of the 3rd Canadian Divisional Artillery by the 1st Canadian Divisional Artillery was issued today.  This relief is to take place on the 22nd and 23rd instants.  On completion of the relief the 3rd Canadian Divisional Artillery are to be quartered in the BRUAY Area and are to be held as an Army Reserve ready to move at 12 hours notice into any part of the line required.  The visibility was good and numerous targets of opportunity were engaged by our field guns.  The enemy’s artillery fire was normal.

 

21.1.18                      Visibility was good and planes were active on both sides.  The usual amount of enemy movement was again seen and fired on by our batteries with good results.  Hostile artillery was a little more active than previously particularly on our forward trenches.  During the afternoon the enemy placed a dense smoke screen in front of HARNES and COURRIERS apparently to conceal the firing of a battery or the movement of transport in that vicinity.

 

22.1.18                      One section of each of the batteries of this Brigade was relieved by sections of the 5th, 6th, 7th and 48th Batteries of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Canadian Divisional Artillery.  Guns were taken over as they stood, our sections taking over guns from the 2nd Brigade Batteries at the Wagon Lines.  Considerable aerial activity took place on both sides.  Less enemy movement than usual was observed and the enemy’s artillery was quiet.  Owing to poor visibility very little information as to enemy movement in rear areas was obtained.

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

23.1.18                      The relief of this Brigade by the 2nd Brigade C.F.A. was completed this evening.  The Wagon Lines of the Brigade moved from NOEUX-les-MINES to the wagon lines previously occupied by the 2nd Brigade at HALLICOURT, BRUAY area.  The C.R.A. inspected the brigade as it moved off from NOEUX-les-MINES and was apparently pleased with the appearance of the turnout.  The horses of the 33rd Battery looked particularly well.  Lieut. Col. Anderson, the Commanding Officer of the 2nd Brigade C.F.A. was very pleased with the condition of the lines taken over from this Unit, particularly that of Brigade Headquarters.  Both officers and men of this brigade were sorry to move out of the line as both the battery positions and wagon lines were comfortable and the area to which they are moving has poor facilities for a mounted unit.

HALLICOURT

24.1.18 to 27.1.18     Batteries busy erecting stables and cleaning up lines and billets which were left in a dirty condition by the previous occupants.  As there is considerable mange among the horses of certain units in the Corps batteries are clipping all horses and taking every precaution to prevent the disease in this unit. Stables are being built by the 31st, 33rd and 36th Batteries.  With this work in hand not much time has been available for training since arrival in this area.  The weather has been mild and fair and a great deal of work has been accomplished by all batteries since arriving here.

 

28.1.18 to 31.1.18     Weather fair and very mild.  Batteries continuing with mange precautions and construction of stables and horse lines.  Syllabus of Training including gun laying and gun drill, signalling with buzzer, lamp and flag, and driving and riding drill has been carried out.  Nights have been clear and very bright and the enemy has bombed surrounding area each night.  No great damage has yet been reported.

 

 

 

Major

A/C.O. 9th Canadian Artillery Brigade

 

 

 

 

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WAR DIARY of 20 Siege Battery January 1918

WAR DIARY of 20 Siege Battery

 

For January 1918

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

In the field

GORRE       Jan 1st.               Battery in occupation 8” Battery position in farm E of village (4 guns), 2 guns forming a silent section on LA BASSEE Canal 1 mile E of BETHUNE.

Officers on strength of Battery 1st Jan

Capt (A/Major) LGRFH BELL (Reg) absent on BC’s course & leave in England till 24.1.18

Lt. (A/Capt) JC THOMPSON (SR)

2/Lt. E.B. LOACH (SR)

2/Lt. H. MACKAY (SR)

2/Lt. F.W. DAVIS (SR)

2/Lt.C.H. BATEMAN (SR)

2/Lt. W.H. CHAPMAN (SR)

2/Lt. B.W. TURNBULL (SR)

2/Lt. A.E. COCKFIELD (SR)

2/Lt. K. DOWNEY (SR)

 

Jan 3rd              1 Bdr killed & 4 Gunners wounded by hostile shellfire (8) (Bdr Makin)

Jan 7th              Battery moved to LA MIQUELLERIE, near BUSNES.  Guns left in position.  300 *** destroyed by hostile shellfire.

Jan 16th            Personnel of Battery inspected by G.O.C. I Army.

Jan 24th            Major Bell rejoined from leave to UK.

Jan 31st            Battery returned from rest to former position in line.

In the field

GORRE                                 Tactical

During first week of January 500 rounds fired on 3 hostile Batteries with aeroplane observation. No other firing apart from registration.

Honours & Awards

No 276082 Sergt WILMER H. awarded D.C.M. in New Years’ Honour GAZETTE.

War Diary of 2/6th Sherwood Foresters January 1918

War Diary of 2/6th Sherwood Foresters

 

For January 1918

 

 

Place       Date    Hour                                                Summary of Events and Information

 

Fighting Strength 27 Officers  729 O.R.s

MAGNICOURT-SUR-CANCHE

H.10.d. (Sheet 51c) 1/1/18 to 31/1/18           Battalion in Rest.  Brigade, Battalion & Company training carried out, also training of Additional Specialists.

12/1/18                                      Inspection by G.O.C. 59th Division, as follows.

9.30.am.                 A Coy

10.20 am.                 B Coy

11.10 am.                 C Coy

12.0 noon                 D Coy

12.50 pm.                 Transport

20/12/18   11.0 am.                   Presentation of M Medal Ribbons by G.O.C. 59th Division to the following:-

241612 Pte Else W.S.B.

241765 L. Sgt Palmer A.

22/1/18  10.0 am.                      Battalion Tactical Exercise.

29/1/18  9.0 am.                        Letter A Coy moved into Billets at MONTS-EN-TERNOIS, B.26.c (51c)

Draft of 5 Offs & 143 O.R.s arrived from 2/8th S.F.

30/1/18                                       Fighting Strength  52 Offs 936 O.R.s.

 

FEBRUARY 1918

 

FEBRUARY 1918

Western Front

Owing to reduced daylight and the need to stay alive against winter conditions in the trenches,

all was quiet on the Western Front.

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Eastern Front

The Battle of Rarancza was fought between Polish Legionnairess and Austro-Hungary, from 15th to 16th February 1918, near Rarancza in Bukovina, the present day border between Poland and the Ukraine, and ended with a Polish victory. The Brest-Litovsk Treaty, which was being negotiated did not appear to benefit the idea of a nation state for Poland. This treaty, signed between the Central Powers and the Ukrainian People’s Republic on 9th February 1918, transferred the province of Chelm, which the Poles believed should be under Polish control, to the Ukrainian state. The Polish forces, part of the Austro-Hungarian Army stationed on the border of Bessarabia, were increasingly restless. Having received the information about the treaty on 12th February 1918, and expecting further weakening of the Polish units, they decided on the 24th February 1918 to join forces with the Polish First Army Corps in Russia by crossing the Austro-Hungarian front lines. Polish units, mostly 2nd and 3rd Regiment under the command of Jőzef Haller de Hallenburg, attempted to break through the Austrian lines on 15th to 16th February 1918. Austrian forces were ordered to stop them, and fighting ensued in several places but the main Polish units broke through the Austro-Hungarian Army near Rarancza and the Legionnaires won the battle.

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Operation Faustschlag was a Central Powers offensive against Bolshevik Russia and began on the 18th February 1918 when the temporary armistice between Germany and Russia lapsed. It was the last offensive of the Eastern Front. Russian forces were unable to put up any serious resistance due to the turmoil of the Russian Revolution and subsequent Civil War. The armies of the Central Powers therefore captured huge territories in the Balkans, Belarus and Ukraine. The German Chief of Staff, General Max Hoffman, signed a peace treaty with the Ukrainian People’s Republic on the 9th February 1918 and announced an end to the cease-fire with Russia, leading to the resumption of hostilities. On the 18th February 1918, the German and Austro-Hungarian forces began a major three pronged offensive. Their northern army advanced from Pskov towards Narva, the central army pushed toward Smolensk and the southern army towards Kiev. The northern army captured the key Daugavpils junction on the first day. This was soon followed by the capture of Pskov and securing Narva on the 28th February 1918, the central army advanced towards Smolensk. On the 21st February 1918, Minsk was captured together the headquarters of the Russian Soviet Western Army Group. The southern forces broke through the remains of the Russian Southwestern Army Group, capturing Zhitomir on the 24th February 1918. The Germans captured the Russian town of Pskov on the 28th February 1918. The Germans secured Kiev the capital of Ukraine on the 2nd March 1918. The Central Power’s armies advanced over 150 miles (249 km) within a week, facing no serious resistance. German troops were now within 100 miles (160 km) of Petrograd, forcing the Soviets to transfer their capital to Moscow. The rapid advance occurred because German soldiers used Russian railways to advance eastward.

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The Germans landed on the mainland of Estonia on 18th February 1918 and marched into Haapsahu on 21st February 1918. They occupied Valga on 22nd February 1918, Pernau, Valjandi, Tartu on 24th February 1918, Tallinin and the rest of Estonia was occupied on the 25th February 1918.  The last town in Estonia to be taken was Narva on the 4th March 1918.

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On the 10th February 1918, Leon Trotsky, the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs, withdrew from the peace negotiations of the Brest-Litovsk Conference. His withdrawal was on the grounds that the German imperial ambitions were for territorial gains and repatriations. The Russian Soviet hoped to proclaim a revolutionary war against Germany in order to inspire Russian and European workers to fight for socialism. This opinion was shared by Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who then were the Bolshevik’s junior partners in a coalition government. Germany responded to the Russian withdrawal from the talks by no longer observing the temporary ceasefire and on the 18th February 1918 resumed military operations. When the Red Army was formed in January 1918, its weaknesses were soon apparent. It had insufficient men and knowledgeable officers to continue the war against Germany. Questioning whether Germany was in a position to fight on because of German civil unrest, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik government, had hoped for a speedy Soviet revolution in Germany and other parts of Europe. He quickly decided that the imperial government of Germany was still firmly in control and that, without a strong Russian military, an armed conflict with Germany would lead to the collapse of the Soviet government in Russia. If faced with a German ultimatum, Lenin advocated signing a separate peace treaty. On the other hand Trotsky was dead set against any peace treaty arguing that the olunteer Red Army had successes against Polish forces, Russian White forces in the Don region and Ukrainian forces as proof that the Red Army could repel German forces. Trotsky’s position was between these two Bolshevik factions. Like Lenin, he admitted that the old inherited Russian military was unable to fight. But he agreed with the Left Communists that a separate peace treaty with an imperialist power would be a terrible morale blow to the Soviet government, wiping out all its military and political successes of 1917 and 1918. When Germany resumed military operations on the 18th February 1918, it became clear, within a day that the German army was capable of conducting offensive operations and the Red Army detachments were no match for it. In the evening of the 18th February 1918, Trotsky and his supporters abstained from the debate and Lenin’s proposal was accepted. The Soviet government sent a message to the Germans accepting the final Brest-Litovsk peace terms. The Germans did not respond until the 24th February 1918, but the terms were so harsh that even Lenin thought that Russia had no choice but to fight on. But in the end, the committee again voted on the 24th February 1918 to accept German peace terms. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on the 3rd March 1918, removing Russia from the Great War.

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The Balkans

In the Balkans, Romania was allied to Russia, Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria and Turkey. When Russia withdrew from the war after the October Revolution, Romania was almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers. Romania was forced into negotiating an armistice, and on the 6th February 1918 Germany’s ultimatum made their negotiations complicated owing to the territorial demands of the Central Powers. By the 27th February 1918 Romania accepted the German ultimatum regarding the peace terms, which was signed on the 7th May 1918 under the Treaty of Bucharest.

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Middle East

The British began their assault to secure Jericho on the 19th February 1918. Having captured Jerusalem in December 1917, winter rains put an end to campaigning, and this lull in the fighting offered the opportunity for the captured territories to be consolidated. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) planned to capture the territory east of Jerusalem stretching to the Dead Sea. The Jordan Valley to the east of Jerusalem was Allenby’s exposed right flank and the area was garrisoned by Turkish troops entrenched on the hill tops. On the 20th February 1918, three infantry columns advanced. The column in the centre, captured their objective on the main Jerusalem to Jericho road. On the left, the 181st Brigade was only able to advance 2.5 miles (4 km) to be about halfway to The Mount of Temptation by nightfall. On the right, the 179th Brigade column marched towards the south of Jericho, but arrived too late for the attack. By 08.15 the advanced trenches had been captured, and the British forces had fought their way up to the summit of the hill. At 10.00 the British infantry captured the dominating position on the Jerusalem-Jericho road, but a strong counter-attack drove them off. The summit was finally secured at about 12.30 when heavy artillery helped the desperate attackers to capture their objective. Meanwhile, at 03.30 the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade led the Australian 1st Light Horse Brigade on their advance to El Muntar. The advance guard moved from Bethlehem along the ancient road to the valley near El Muntar hill, followed by their brigade and 1st Light Horse Brigade. They zig-zagged three miles (4.8 km) down to the valley floor while Turkish soldiers on the height of El Muntar watched their approach. Because of the terrain it was hours before the long column could deploy for the attack. By 06.00 all the New Zealand Mounted rifles were in the valley. They attacked Turkish positions astride the Mar Saba-Jericho road and by 14.00 they had occupied all their positions forcing the Turkish defenders to fall back to Nebi Musa. But Nebi Musa was strongly held by the Turkish soldiers supported by artillery, which made it impossible to move on, and the attack was postponed until the next day. Meanwhile, at dusk, the Australian Light Horse brigade began its descent. They moved down a goat track which fell 1,300 feet (400 km) in two miles (3.2 km) to get into position to attack Nebi Musa from the rear. The journey was successfully completed by midnight. On the 21st February 1918, under cover of darkness, the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade advanced north along a very rough track and by daylight was just east of the Nebi Musa position. They made a dismounted attack while the British infantry attacked Nebi Musa from the rear. The Mounted Rifles Regiment occupied Nebi Musa at daylight to find the Turkish garrison had withdrawn with their guns. When the 1st Light Horse Brigade reached the floor of the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea, it turned north towards Jericho. A single troop of the 3rd Light Horse Regiment entered Jericho at about 08.00 to find the Turkish garrison had withdrawn.

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Other Theatres

On the 1st February 1918, in the Austro-Hungarian navy, an unsuccessful mutiny started in the Fifth Fleet division at the Bay of Cattaro their naval base in the Adriatic Sea. As the Great War progressed, the effects of wartime economics and social disorganisation undermined the discipline of Austro-Hungarian soldiers and sailors. Hunger, cold and naval inaction resulted in complaints, desertions and strikes. The Russian Revolution had fuelled revolutionary propaganda in Austro-Hungary, which spread among soldiers and workers. Sailors on about forty ships had joined the mutiny, and initial demands for better treatment were soon replaced by political demands and a call for peace. The mutiny failed to spread to other ships. On 3rd February 1918, the loyal Third Fleet arrived and together with coastal artillery engaged in a short and successful skirmish against the mutineers. About 800 sailors were imprisoned, dozens were court-martialled and four seamen were executed.

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Timetable February 1918

Timetable February 1918

Eastern Front

1st Feb                               Mutiny in Austrian navy at Cattaro on the Eastern Front

9th Feb                                 The Central Powers sign protective treaty with Ukraine

21st Feb                               Germans capture Minsk

24th Feb                               Germans capture Zhytomir

28th Feb                               Germans capture Pskov and Narva

………………

25th Feb                               German troops land on and capture Estonia

………………

10th Feb                               Trotsky quits Brest-Litovsk peace talks

24th Feb                               Russian Soviet accept German terms

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The Balkans

6th Feb                                  Germany’s ultimatum to Romania over peace talks

27th Feb                               Romanian acceptance of German ultimatum on peace talks

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Middle East

Feb to Sept                        Allied forces occupy the Jordan Rift Valley

9th Feb                             British begin their assault on Jericho

21st Feb                              The British capture Jericho

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Other Theatres

15/16th Feb                         Battle of Rarancza

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